Abdication, Shomu; Fujiwara policy

Abe, Princess, becomes Empress Koken

Abe family and Nine Years' Commotion; Minister of the Left

--Kozo, on moral influence of Chinese classics

--Masahiro, policy in 1853; attempts to strengthen Tokugawa

--Muneto, brother of Sadato, war in Mutsu

--Nakamaro (701-70), studies in China

--Sadato (1019-1062), in Nine Years' Commotion

--Seimei, astronomer, his descendants in Gakashujo

--Shigetsugu (1600-51)

--Tadaaki (1583-1644), minister of Iemitsu

Abutsu-ni (d. 1283), author of Izayoi-nikki

Academies for youth of uji, Gaku-in; temple-schools, iera-koya;
established by Yoshinao; the Honga school; schools in Yedo and Osaka;
for court nobles


Achi, Chinese prince, migrates to Japan (289 A.D.) with weavers;
carpenters; and Saka-no-ye no Tamuramaro

Adachi family, connexion with Hojo, Miura plot against; crushed

Adahiko, son of Omi, befriends Oke and Woke

Adams, Will (d. 1520), English pilot on Liefde, adviser of Ieyasu;
Saris distrusts; tomb (ill.)

Adoption, law of, in Court Laws; in Tokugawa fiefs; laws of

After-Han dynasty (211-65) of China

Aganoko, lands confiscated

Agglutinative language

Agriculture, early development of; and religion; encouraged by Sujin;
in reign of Suinin; on state revenue lands; in years 540-640; in Nara
epoch; in Heian; in Kamakura period; under Yoshimune; Americans in
remodelling methods of; growth in 19th century

Ai river, fighting on

Ainu, nature-worship of; language; subdivision of yellow race; ill.

Aizu, meeting-plan of armies in Shido shogun campaign; clan loyal to
shogun at Restoration

Akabashi Moritoki

Akagashira, "red head," Akahige, "red beard," Yemishi leader in 8th

Akahito see Yamabe Akahito

Akakura at Sekigahara

Akamatsu, large land-holdings of; Ashikaga Yoshinori plots against

--Mitsusuke (1381-1441), rebels against Yoshimochl; defeated

--Norimura (1277-1350), defender of Go-Daigo; turns against Crown;
captures Kyoto (1336); and Ashikaga

--Norishige, revolts in Kyushu

--Sadamura, among generals attacking Mitsusuke

--Yoshimura, guardian of Ashikaga Yoshiharu

Aka-Nyudo, "Red Monk,"; see Yamana Mochitoyo

Akasaka taken by Hojo

Akazome Emon, authoress of Eigwa Monogatari

Akechi Mitsuhide (1526-82), soldier under Nobunaga; goes over to the
Mori; shogun; tries to kill Ieyasu; death

Aki, province

Aki, daughter of Kiyo and Fujiwara Yoshifusa, Montoku's empress

Akimoto Yasutomo (1580-1642) rebuilds Ieyasu's shrine

Akitoki see Kanazawa Akitoki

Akizuki of Kyushu, defeated by Otomo

Ako, "reliance on equity," quibble over word

Ako, vendetta of

Akunoura, foundry

Akuro-o, Yemishi leader in 8th century wars, possibly Oro-o, i.e.

Alcock, Sir Rutherford (1809-97), on aliens in Japan

Alderman, over homestead of 50 houses

Alexieff, E. I. (b. 1843), Russian admiral, in command at Port Arthur

Aliens, in prehistoric ban or bambetsu; naturalized, skilled
artisans, the tamibe; see Extraterritorial Jurisdiction

Altaic myth; group of languages

Amako family crushed in Izumo by the Mori

--Tsunehisa (1458-1540), rivalry with Ouchi

--Yoshihisa (1545-1610), defeated by Mori

--Amakusa, Portuguese trade and Christianity in; Shimabara revolt

Ama-no-Hihoko, prince of Shiragi, Korea, settles in Tajima

Amaterasu-o-mi-Kami, Sungoddess

Amida, the Saviour; Amida-ga-mine, shrine, near Kyoto, tomb of

Amur river, battle on, (660 A.D.) with Sushen; Russia's position on

Amusements, prehistoric; in early historic times; in Heian epoch; at
Kamakura; in Muromachi epoch; (ills.)

Anahobe, Prince, rival of Yomei for throne; to succeed Yomei

Anato now Nagato

Ancestor-worship, apotheosis of distinguished mortals; grafted on

Ando family revolt

--Shoshu, suicide (1333)

Andrew, Prince, Arima Yoshisada

Ane-gawa, battle (1570)

Ane-no-koji family

Animals, killing, forbidden in reign (741) of Koken; earlier; in time
of Tsunayoshi; result in stock farming; worship of; mythical and
terrible beasts in early records; pets

Anjin-Zuka, tomb of Will Adams, (ill.)

"Anjiro," Japanese interpreter of Xavier

Ankan, 27th Emperor (534-535)

Anko, 20th Emperor (454-456), 111-12; palace

Ankokuji Ekei see Ekei

Annam, trade with

Annen, priest, compiles Doji-kyo

Annual Letter of Jesuits

Anotsu, Ise, China trade

Anra, province Mimana

Ansatsu-shi, inspectors of provincial government

Anthology, first Japanese, "Myriad Leaves,"; of poems in Chinese
style, Kwaifu-so; the Kokin-shu, 10th century; the three, of the
Ho-en epoch; the Hyakunin-isshu of Teika; in the Kyoto school

Antoku, 81st Emperor (1181-1183); drowned at Dan-no-ura; perhaps a

Antung, on Yalu, Russians defeated

Aoki Kaneiye, metal-worker of Muromachi period

Konyo, scholar, studies Dutch (1744); introduces sweet potato

Aoto Fujitsuna criticizes Hojo Tokiyori

Ape, worship of

Apotheosis, one class of Kami formed by

Aqueducts in irrigation

Arai Hakuseki (1656-1726), Confucianist, author of Sotran I gen
(ill.); retired; opposes forcing Imperial princes into priesthood

Arakahi, defeats Iwai in Chikugo (528 A.D.)

Archaeological relics

Archery, early development of; in reign of Temmu; equestrian, in Nara
epoch; (ill.)

Architecture, in proto-historic times; influenced by Buddhism; in
Heian epoch; Kamakura period; Muromachi

Are see Hiyeda Are

Ariga, Dr., on Korean influence on early relations with China; on
supposed moral influence of Chinese classics; on false attribution to
Shotoku of estimate of Buddhism; on Joei code

Arii, adherents of Southern Court in Sanyo-do

Arima, in Settsu, thermal spring; Jesuits and Buddhists in;
represented in embassy to Europe

Arima Yostosada (d. 1577), brother of Omura Sumitada, baptized as

--Yoshizumi rebels

Arisugawa, one of four princely houses

--Prince (1835-95), leader of anti-foreign party

Arita, porcelain manufacture

Ariwara, uji of princely descent; Takaoka's family in; academy;
eligible to high office

--Narihira (825-882), poet; (ill.)

--Yukihira (818-893), poet; founds academy, (881)

Armour, Yamato, in sepulchral remains; in Muromachi epoch; early arms
and armour; after Daiho; in Heian epoch

Army see Military Affairs

Army and Navy, Department in Meiji government

Army inspector


Artillery, early use

Artisans, in prehistoric tamibe; Korean and Chinese immigrants

Arts and Crafts, promoted by Yuryaku; Chinese and Korean influence;
in Kamakura period; in Heian epoch; patronized by Yoshimasa; first
books on; in Muromachi epoch; in time of Hideyoshi; patronized by

Asahina Saburo (or Yoshihide) son of Wada Yoshimori

Asai family control Omi province; Nobunaga's struggle with; helped by

--Nagamasa (1545-73), won over to Nobunaga; joins Asakura, defeated

Asaka Kaku, contributor to Dai Nihon-shi

Asakura family in Echizen; struggle with Nobunaga; helped by
Buddhist priests

--Yoshikage (1533-73), defeated by Hideyoshi

Asama, eruption (1783)

Asan, Korea, occupied by Chinese (1894)

Asano Nagamasa (1546-1610); in charge of commissariat; sent to Korea

--Naganori, daimyo of Ako, exile, suicide, avenged by "47 Ronins,"

--Yukinaga (1576-1613), against Ishida

Ashikaga family favour Yoritomo; revolt of; shogun of Northern court;
government; internal quarrels; estimate by Rai Sanyo; fall of;
government; scholarship; school; Buddhism; against Hojo; end of
shogunate of

--Chachamaru, kills his father Masatomo

--gakko, great school, under patronage of Uesugi

--Haruuji (d. 1560), kubo

--Masatomo (1436-91), kubo; builds fort at Horigoe; succession

--Mitsukane (1376-1409), kwanryo; assists the Ouchi

--Mochinaka, brother of Mochiuji, sides with Ogigayatsu

--Mochisada, intrigue to make him high constable

--Mochiuji (1398-1439), kwanryo; sides with Yamanouchi branch of
Uesugi; suicide

--Motouji (1340-67), son of Takauji; kwanryo; urged to become shogun

--Shigeuji (1434-97), kubo

Ashikaga Tadafuyu (1326-1400), son of Takauji, rebels in Kyushu;
joins Southern party in 1353; takes and loses Kyoto

--Tadayoshi (1307-52), assistant governor-general of Kwanto;
governor of Totomi; kills Morinaga; practically regent; in Ashikaga
revolt; chief of general staff; plots against the Ko brothers,
defeated, joins Southern party; suicide

--Takamoto, kubo

--Takauji (1305-58), joins Go-Daigo; provincial governor; plots
against Morinaga; declares himself shogun; captures Kyoto; changes
plans; crushes Tadayoshi; defeated; death, estimate; shogun
(1338-58); distributes estates; letters; shrine of Hachiman; Buddhist
temples; signature (ill.)

--Ujimitsu (1357-98), kwanryo; wishes to be shogun; strengthens family
in Kwanto; literature

--Yoshiaki (1537-97), shogun; turns to Mori, defeated; Hideyoshi
intrigues with

--Yoshiakira (1330-67), kwanryo of Kwanto; succeeds Tadayoshi;
de-thrones Suko; defeats Tadafuyu; shogun; surrender and death; plot

--Yoshiharu (1510-50), shogun (1521-45)

--Yoshihide (1565-8), shogun

--Yoshihisa (1465-89), shogun (1474-89); Onin war; declared heir;
administration; scholarship

--Yoshikatsu (1433-43), shogun

--Yoshikazu (1407-25) shogun (1423-5)

--Yoshikiyo, advances on Tamba; killed


--Yoshimasa (1435-90), shogun; succession; retires; fosters letters

--Yoshimi (1439-91), called Gijin, heir of Yoshimasa; deserted by
Yamana (1469); retires (1477)

--Yoshimichi see Ashikaga Yoshizumi

Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358-1408), shogun at Muromachi (1367-95);
extravagant administration; foreign policy; dies, receives rank of
ex-Emperor; treatment of Crown; and piracy; favours Zen priests

--Yoshimochi (1386-1428), shogun; succeeds his father Yoshimitsu in
military offices; rebellion against; excesses

--Yoshinori (1394-41), shogun (1428-41); abbot, called Gien; rule;
killed; relations with China; grants Ryukyu to Shimazu

--Yoshitane (1465-1523), shogun; rule; defeated by Hatakeyama
Yoshitoyo; death

--Yoshiteru (1535-65), shogun, (1545-65); suicide; receives Vilela

--Yoshitsugu, killed by his brother Yoshimochi

--Yoshiuji, last kubo

--Yoshizumi, originally Yoshimichi (1478-1511), shogun; nominal rule;

Ashina of Aizu

Asiatic yellow race

Askold, Russian protected cruiser at Port Arthur

Asbmaro, governor of Dazaifu, wins favor of Dokyo

Assumption, De l', martyrdom (1617)

Aston, W. G., on dates in "Chronicles,"; Korean origin of Kumaso;
purification service; neolithic boats; chronology; invasions of
Korea; Japanese authority in Korea; local records; 17-Article
Constitution; women in Heian epoch; Yoshitsune's letter; invasion of

Asuka, Empress Komyo

Asuka, capital moved to; palace built by Kogyoku

Asuka-yama, groves

Asukara Norikige, high constable, crushes revolt

Asylum established by Fujiwara Fuyutsugu

Ata rebels against Sujin

Ataka Maru, great ship of Bakufu, broken up by Tsunayoshi

Atalanta Izanagi

Atogi, Korean scribe

Atsumi Hirafu, defeated by Chinese in Korea (662)

Atsunaga, brother of Atsvnari; see Go-Shujaku

Atsunari, Prince, son of Ichijo; see Go-Ichijo

Atsuta, Hachiman's shrine

Auditor of accounts


Augustins in Japan

Avatars of Buddha, Kami

Awa, mythical first island; culture of mulberry and hemp in; overrun
by Taira Tadatsune; invaded by Yoritomo; won from Satomi by Hojo
Ujitsuna; Miyoshi in; indigo growing

Awada, Mahito, on committee for Daiho laws (701)

Awadaguchi, swordsmith

Awaji, island, in early myth; Izanagi goddess of; Sagara exiled to;
reduced by Hideyoshi

Awo, Princess, sister of Woke, rules in interregnum

Axe, in fire ordeal

Ayala (d. 1617), Augustin vice-provincial, executed

Azuchi, in Omi, fort built by Nobunaga; church and residence for

Azuke, placing in custody of feudatory

Azuma, eastern provinces, origin of name

--Kagami, 13th century history, on Hojo Yasutoki

Azumi, temple of

Babylonian myth

Backgammon or sugoroku

Badges; and crests

Baelz, Dr. E., on stature and race of Japanese; on shape of eye

Bakin, on last years of Minamoto Tametomo

Bakufu, camp government, military control, Yoritomo's system of
shogunate; three divisions; entrusted with choice of emperor (1272 &
1274); power weakened by Mongol invasion; and rapidly fails;
Go-Fushimi appeals to; re-created at Kyoto by Takauji; in Muromachi
period; at Yedo; oath of loyalty, to; Tokugawa B.; appointing power,
and other powers; exiles Yamaga Soko for heterodoxy; power lessened
by Chinese learning; B. party in Kyoto; relations with Court;
organization; decline of power; Court nobles and Emperor begin to
oppose; puts through Harris commercial treaty; and foreign
representatives; pledged (1861) to drive out foreigners in 10 years;
further interference of Crown and Court party; power ended

Baltic squadron, Russian, defeated by Togo

Bambelsu or Ban, aboriginal class

Bandits commanded by Buddhist priests in 10th century; their outrages

Bando or Kwanto provinces, army raised in, during 8th century; see

Banishment; edict of 1587, against Christians

Banzai, "10,000 years," viva

Baptismal flags

Barley, cultivation of, urged as substitute for rice

Basho see Matsuo Basho

Batchelor, Rev. John, on pit-dwellers


Battle Era, Sengoku Jidai, 1490-1600

Be, guilds or corporations; hereditary, not changed by Daika;
property of Crown; of armourers; fishermen

Bekki Shoemon, in plot of 1652

Bell, of Hoko-ji, "treasonable" inscription on; on public-service
horses; bronze bells; Nanban (ill.); bell-tower (ill.); suzu

Benkei, halberdier

Betto superintendent of uji schools; president of samurai-dokoro;
regent, shikken, head of man-dokoro, office hereditary in Hojo
family; head of monju-dokoro, becomes finance minister of shogun

Bidatsu, 30th Emperor (572-85)

Biddle, James. (1783-1848), Commodore, U.S.N., in Japan (1846)

Bifuku-mon-in, consort of Toba, mother of Konoe

Bin, Buddhist priest, "national doctor"; death

Bingo, woman ruler, in

Bingo, Saburo, see Kojima Takanori

Birth customs

Bison, fossil remains

Bita-sen, copper coins

Bitchu, province, Yoshinaka's force defeated in; invaded by Hideyoshi

Biwa, 4-stringed lute; biwabozu, players; (ill.)

Biwa, Lake

Bizen, swordsmith

Bizen transferred from Akamatsu to Yamana family

Black, early colour of mourning

Black Current see Kuro-shio

Boards of Religion and Privy Council under Daiho code

Bogatyr, Russian protected cruiser wrecked

Bondmen and Freemen, division by Daika; by Jito's edict

Bonita, curing, industry

Bonotsu, Satsuma

Borneo, possible source of Kumaso

Boxer Rebellion, Japanese troops in China during

Brack, Dutch ship

Bramsen, William, on early dates in "Chronicles"




Bribery and sale of office, attempts to abolish

Bridges, (ill.)

Brine in cosmogony

Brinkley, Capt. Frank (1841-1912), article in Encyclopaedia
Britannica quoted; Oriental Series referred to

Bronze culture in South; traces before the Yamato; bells; mirrors,
bowls, vases in Yamato tombs; great statue of Buddha

Buddha, early images of; copper images ordered in 605; golden image
of, from Shiragi (616 and 621); great bronze Nara image (750 A.D.);
Kami incarnations of, theory of Mixed Shinto; bronze image (1252) at
Karnakura; great image at Kyoto; replaced by bronze

Buddhism introduced 552 A.D.; use of writing; early politics; rapid
spread; priests above law; architecture; music; Empresses; disasters
and signs check spread; in Xara epoch; abdications; decline of
Yamato; industry; funeral of Shomu; time of Kwammu; official
advancement; vices of priests; superstition; in Heian epoch; in
Yorimasa uprising; Hojo regents: sects; Korean and Chinese; three
Vehicles; soldier priests; crushed by Yoshinori; amulets; Chinese
priests; combined with Confucianism and Shinto; Ashikaga; wars of
monks; revolt in Settsu; oppose Nobunaga; in Komaki war; spies in
Kyushu; Hideyoshi; priests of Kagoshima; in Choshu; in Yamaguchi;
persecuted in Hirado by Christians; priests converted by Vilela;
Ieyasu's laws; gains by suppression of Christianity

Bugyo, commissioners of Muromachi; 5 administrators under Hideyoshi;
special appointees to rich fiefs; under Babufu; in Emperor's and
ex-Emperor's court

Building-land, tenure

Buke, see Military houses.

Bukyo Shogaku, "Military Primer," by Yamaga Soko

Bummei Ittpki, work of Ichijo Kaneyoshi

Bungo, Tsuchi-gumo in; Xavier in; Jesuit headquarters; Christian
success among nobles; in embassy of 1582

Bunji-kin, debased coins of 1736-40

Bunka, period, 1804-17

Bunroku, period, 1592-5

Bunsei, period, 1818-29

Bureaux, under Daika

Burial, jars of Yamato; primitive methods; coffins; honour of tombs;
mounds, limited in size; funeral customs

Bushi; originated in N.E. Japan; name first used of guards; virtues
of, typified in leaders of Nine Years' Commotion; general
description; of Kwanto described; fighting against Mongols; outrages
in provinces

Bushido, way of the warrior; cult developed by Yamaga Soko; and by

Butsu Sorai see Ogyu Sorai

Butter, tribute to Court

Buzen, Tsuehi-gumo in

Byodo-in, Tendai temple; prison of Go-Daigo

Cabinet under Restoration rule; crisis over Korea (1873); of 1885;
dependent on Crown

Cabral; Francis (1529-1609), Jesuit Vice-provincial, on early
missions, hospitals, Buddhists

Calendar, Prince Shotoku; revision of 1683; further revision planned
by Yoshimune


Calthrop, Capt., on Oriental tactics

Cambodia, trade with

Camera government, insei, proposed by Go-Sanjo; under Shirakawa;
Go-Shirakawa; Yoritomo establishes giso at the Inchu; the three
recluses; system destroyed by Shokyu war; in Kamakura regency; camera
party at court; in Northern court


Canonical names of emperors

Capital changed at beginning of reign; Jimmu's change to Yamato;
Chuai's to far south; to Nara (709) and previous changes; changes
helped road building; change from Nara to Kyoto (792); from Kyoto to

Capital Punishment

Caps, official, as insignia of rank; effect of, on hair dressing; cap
rank replaced by cap grade after Daika; varnished gauze

Car, of Enryaku-ji

Caron, Francis, Dutch trader, on Japanese martyrs

Cart, hunting, 126; "compass cart"; Heian epoch

Casting in Nara epoch



Caterpillar, worship, of

Cats, pets in Heian epoch

Cattle, not used for food in early Japan, killing forbidden;
Christians accused of eating

Cavalry, in capital; in war

Censor; in Tokugawa organization; as judge

Census, reign of Sujin; time of Daika, (645 A.D.); classifications,
under Daiho; by Buddhist and Shinto priests

Central Department, under Daika; under Daiho

Centralization of government

Ceramics, primitive; Yamato; Korean; Gyogi; Heian; Kamakura;

Cereals, five; premiums for large crops

Ceremonies, Department of, under Daika; under Daiho; 15 masters of,
Koke; law (927)

Chamberlain, Basil Hall, on dates in early "Chronicles"; meaning of
Kami; classification of language; village communities; ancient dress;
Altaic myth; names; education; Doji-kyo; swords

Chamberlain; pass on cases referred to shogun

Chancellor, dajo daijin; abolished; Ashikaga Yoshimitsu

Changan, Tang metropolis, Kyoto patterned after

Chao Heng, Chinese name for Abe Nakamaro

Charlevoix, quoted on Spanish galleon incident

Chekiang, attacked by pirates (1559)

Chemulpo, Russians in, attacked and defeated by Uryu; landing-place
for Japanese attack

Cheng Cheng-kung

Cheng Chi-lung, general of Ming dynasty

Chengtsz, Confucian commentaries of

Chen Hosiang, bonze

Chen Weiching (Chin Ikei), Chinese envoy to Japanese in Korea; and
negotiations for peace

Cherry-trees, groves; festivals

Chiba, branch of Taira; one of "8 Generals of Kwanto"

Chiba Tsunetane (1118-1201), favours Yoritomo; sent to Kyoto

Chichibu, copper in, (708)

Chichibu branch of Taira

Chihaya in Hojo war

Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1724), dramatist,

Chikauji see Tokugawa Chikauji

Chikayoshi see Nakahira Chikayoshi

Chiksan, battle, (1597), 519

Chikuzen province, Dazai-fu in; Toi attack; Mongol landing

China, "High Plain of Heaven"; "Eternal Land"; architecture; bronze
bells; bronze mirrors; Buddhism; calendar; ceramics; chronology; clay
effigies; coinage; Crown; divination; government; literature;
morality; myth; nobility; painting; promotion of officials; relations
and early intercourse; scholars in Japan; Hideyoshi's plan to
conquer; interference in Korea; Ming dynasty; trade; Formosa;
China-Japan war; Boxer rebellion; Russia; Treaty of Portsmouth; of
Peking; finances

Chin Ikei see Chen Weiching

Chinju, fort in Korea, taken by Japanese

Chinju-fu, local government station in Korea

Chinnampo, landing-place for Japanese (1904)

Cho, Korean envoy

Cho Densu see Mineho

Chokei, 98th Emperor (1368-72)

Chokei see Miyoshi Norinaga

Chokodo estates

Choko-ji, castle in Omi

Chollado, southern Korea, attacked by pirates

Chomei see Kamo Chomeii

Chong-ju, Korea, Cossacks defeated at

Cho-ryung, pass in Korea

Chosen, name of Korea, first use

Choshu, Xavier in; feudatory of, opposes Tokugawa and joins
extremists; Shimonoseki complication; revolt of samurai; joins
Satsuma against Tokugawa; fiefs surrender to Crown; clan

Chosokabe family in Shikoku punished by Hideyoshi

--Motochika (1539-99), masters Tosa and all Shikoku; in Komaki war; in
invasion of Kyushu

Christianity, Nestorian in China; Azuchi castle; invasion of Korea;
in Japan; Imperial edict against; aid given by Nobunaga; Hideyoshi's
attitude towards; his edict of 1587; Ieyasu's treatment and his
edicts; Christians side with Hideyori; Hideteda's edict (1616),
(1624); teaching in Osaka after edicts; and Buddhist and Shinto
census; laws against (1635, 1665); Ieyasu distinguishes between
commerce and; Dutch not propagandists; opposition in 1853

"Chronicles," Early Japanese, Nihongi, general; character; superior
to Records; accuracy of chronology; contradicts Records; Chinese
colour in; conquest of Korea; stories from Korean history

Chronology; inaccuracy; invasion of Korea; reign of Nintoku

Chrysanthemum, Imperial badge

Chu Chi-yu, Chinese scholar

--Hi, Hayashi follows

Chuai, 14th Emperor (192-200)

Chugoku, central Japan, invaded by Hideyoshi

Chukyo, 85th Emperor (1221)

Chusan, Mimasaka, Kami of

Chushin, Zen priest, pupil of Soseki

Choson-ji, monastery, with graves of the Fujiwara of the North

Chutsz (Shu-shi), Confucian commentaries of; rejected by Yamaga Soko;
officially adopted; expounded by Japanese scholars; contrasted with
Wang Yang-ming

Chu Yuan see Sogen

Chozan, ruler of Ryukyu (1373)

Cicada-shaped hair ornaments

City administration; municipal rulers; administrators; elders

Civil affairs and Civil Government, departments

Clan representation under Meiji government

Clay Effigies, haniwa, from neolithic sites; substituted for human
sacrifice at tomb

Clepsyora, Chinese


Cloistered monarchs; and set Camera

"Cloud chariot," war tower

Clove, English ship


Cocks, Richard, English factor, warns Yedo Court against Spain;
apparent cause of edict of 1616; successor of Saris

Code, ryo, of Daiho (701 A.D.) and Yoro (718 A.D.); of 1742; of 1790

Coelho, Gaspard (d. 1590), vice-provincial of Jesuits, ordered (1587)
from Japan

Coinage, Wado era (708-715); Nara epoch; of Heian epoch; Chinese;
Hideyoshi's time; plan to debase (1673-80); Genroku debased coin;
exports of metal from Nagasaki; attempt to restore (1710); again
debased; foreign trade

Colours of Court costume, grades; indicating social status

Combs, ancient

Commerce, early; after Daika; Nara epoch; Heian; Muromachi; under
Hideyoshi; Portuguese; motive for permission to preach; Dutch; trade
rules; commercial spirit in Yedo; in Tokugawa period; exclusion;
coinage and European trade

Commercial class

Conception, miraculous

Concubinage; classes at court

Conder, J., on armour

Confiscation of lands as punishment, or as expiation of offence;
escheat at Daika; punishment under Tokugawa

Confucianism, Shotoku on; modifying Buddhism; in Tokugawa period;
favoured by Ko-Komyo, and Tsunayoshi; Confucianists eligible for
civil posts; Yamaga Soko; combined with Shinto; Japanese schools of;
hold on educated class; vendetta

Conscription, first (689 A.D.) in Japan; partial abolition of (780,

Constable, High, and lord high constable, in Yoritomo's land reform;
city constables

Constitution, of Shotoku (604 A.D.), text and comment; after
Restoration (1889)

Constitutionist party

Consular courts

Cooking in ancient Japan; in Muromachi epoch

Cooper, master, of Manhattan

Copper in Japan; use for images of Buddha, exhausts currency; Chinese
coins; in 15th century trade, debased Japanese coin; exports of

Coronation Oath of 1867


Cost of living

Costume, prehistoric; in Inkyo's reign; Chinese and Buddhist
influence; Nara epoch; Heian; Kamakura period; laws of Military
Houses; Sadanobu's laws

Cotton first planted in Japan (799); cloth, tax; cloth as currency

Council, Administrative, of Man-dokoro

--of Twelve, at camera Court

Councillor, Sangi, establishment of office

Couplet Composing, ula awase; court amusement; at "winding-water
fete" and other festivals; mania for; tournaments; in Heian epoch;
Kamakura; Tokugawa

Court, costume, colours and kinds; ceremonial; for Imperial power see

Court houses or families, kuge; come into power again at restoration;
in Muromachi period; driven to provinces; Ieyasu's laws for;
intermarriage with military; college for, established by Ninko;
influenced by anti-foreign party; in Restoration; distinction between
territorial and court nobles abolished (1871)

Court of justice, hyojo-sho; first, (1631)

Court, Northern and Southern; and see Dynasties

Crasset on Christian persecution of Buddhists

Creation, story of

Cremation, introduced

Crimes in ancient Japan; classified in Daiho code; see Penal Law

Crocodile myth

Crown, property of; shifts in power of; divine right; Ashikaga; in
Sengoku period; Nobunaga; Ieyasu's Court Laws; Tokugawa; Chinese
classics strengthen; Tsunayoshi; loyalty; American commercial treaty;
rescript to shogun; turns against extremists; Restoration of 1867;
growth of power; Cabinet dependent on

Crown Prince, in proto-historic period, above the law

Crucifixion, haritsuke

Currency in Ashikaga period; see Coinage

Customs tariff

Daian-ji temple

Dai-Dembo-In, monastery of Shingon sect in Kii

Daiei, year-period, 1521-8

Daigo, 60th Emperor (898-930)

Daigo, suburb of Kyoto

Daiho (Taiho), year-period, legislation of; revision

Daijo-uji of Hitachi, branch of Taira

Daika or Taikwa "Great Change," 645 A.D.; name of first nengo or
year-period; reforms

Daikagu-ji family, afterwards Nan-cho, the Southern Court,
descendants of Kameyama; passed over; treatment by Ashikaga

Daikwan, deputy or vice-deputy; tax assessor; judge

Daimyo, "great name," holder of large estate; holdings; Buddhism;
10,000 koku or more; powers

Dai Nihon-shi, "History of Great Japan,"; on military era

Dairies under Daiho laws

Dairo, 5 senior ministers; prime minister

Daiseiden College, or Shoheiko, founded by Tokugawa

Daitoku-ji, Zen temple in Kyoto

Dajo (Daijo) daijin, chancellor, prime minister, 671 A.D.; Privy
Council Board; office abolished

Dajo Kwan, Privy Council

Dalny occupied by Japanese

Dance masks

Dancing at funerals; court; music, Korean influence; pantomimic, of
monkey Sarume in myth; music and poetry; development in Heian epoch;
white posture dance, shirabyoshi; mimetic dance, libretto for,
develops into no; no and furyu

Dan-no-ura, defeat of Taira at

Date family of Yonezawa in 16th century wars


--Masamune (1566-1636); surrenders to Hideyoshi; favours Ieyasu;
against Uesugi; loyal to Iemitsu

--Yasumune rebels (1413) in Mutsu

Dazai-fu, government station in Mimana (Kara, Korea) transferred to

Debt, slavery for, cancellation of interest; legislation (tokusei) of
1297 in favour of military families, and under Ashikaga

Decoration, Interior

Defilement in Shinto code

Degradation in rank

Deluge myth

Demmacho, prison at

Demon's gate, N.E. entrance; guarded by Hieizan, and at Yedo by
Toei-zan; belief in demons; dragon-headed devil

Dengaku mime

Dengyo Daishi, posthumous name of Saicho (q.v.)

Dening, W. Life of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; on Confucian philosophy

Departments, under Daika; under Daiho


De Ryp, Dutch ship, cannonades Kara castle

"Descent" upon Kyushu

Descent, Law of in Daiho legislation

Deshima, island, Dutch factory on

Dewa, Yemishi in; Go-Sannen campaign; (U-shu) part of O-U; 16th
century wars; silk growing

De Witte, Serge Julievitch, Count (b. 1849), Russian peace
commissioner at Portsmouth

Diana, Russian ship, sent to survey Yezo; Russian protected cruiser
at Port Arthur

Dickins, F. V., translation of Taketori Monogatari

Diet, Coronation oath promising; reform leaders differ about;
development of; Constitution promulgated; bi-cameral system

Dirges at funerals

District, gun or kori (originally agata), Daika subdivision, smaller
than province; classification under Daiho; chief of, guncho;
governors, gunshi; district governors and title to uplands; in Meiji
administration, cho, or son


Doctors, national

Doen, Buddhist priest, envoy to China

Dogo, Iyo, thermal spring

Dogs as pets; dog fights; Tsunayoshi's mania for

Doi support Southern Court in Nankai-do

Sanehira (d. 1220), Yoritomo's lieutenant; military governor

Michiharu (d. 1337), defender of Go-Daigo

Toshikatsu (1573-1644), enforces feudal laws

Doin Kinkata (1291-1360), minister of Go-Daigo

Kinsada (1340-99), scholar

Doji, Sanron Buddhist, abbot of Daian-ji

Dojima, in Osaka, rice-exchange

Dojo, exercise halls

Doki (Toki) family favour Takauji; beaten by Saito

Yorito (d. 1342), insults Kogon

Dokyo see Yuge Dokyo

Dolmen in Yamato sepulture; compared with Chinese and Korean;
precious metals in

Dominicans, Ayala and other marytrs

Doryo (Tao Lung) Chinese priest, teacher of Fujiwara Tokimune

Dosho, Buddhist priest, introduces cremation

Double entendre

Drafts, game, prehistoric

Dragon, early superstition

Dragon-Fly Island, old name of Japan

Drama; yokyoku, mimetic dance; no; kyogen; time of Tsunayoshi;
theatre in Yedo; illustrations


Dualism of Shinto

Dug-outs, maruki-bune

Duke, kimi; mahito

Dukes of the Presence, early official organization

Dutch, trade in Japan, beginning 1600, Spanish intrigues against;
Dutch and English intrigues against Portuguese and Spaniards; aid in
reduction of Christian revolt in Shimabara; trade at Nagasaki
restricted; Western learning; refuse grant in Yedo; choose Hirado as
headquarters; the Brack; at Deshima; literature; in 19th century;
teachers of military science; give steamship; at Shimonoseki

Dwarf trees and miniature gardens

Dwelling-Houses, primitive; abandoned on death of owner; general
character in Nara epoch; in Heian epoch; Kamakura; Muromachii


Dynasties, War of the (1337-92); table

Ears of enemy as spoil

Earthquake, 416 A.D.; 599 A.D. drives people to appeal to Earthquake
Kami; in Kyoto (1185), and (1596); of 1662 charged to Emperor's lack
of virtue; of 1703

Eastern Army, Hosokawa Onin War

Eastern Tsin dynasty (317-420) Chinese migration

East India Company

Eben, Buddhist priest

Ebisu, variant of Yemishi

Echigo, barrier settlement (645) against Yemishi; and Matsudaira

--Chuta, suicide

Echizen, paper money in

Education, in ancient Japan; in Nara epoch, in Heian; temple schools;
military foundations; at Yedo; in Meiji epoch; see Academies

Egawa Tarozaemon advocates foreign intercourse

Eight Generals of Kwanto

Eigwa Monogatari, "Tales of Splendour," story of the Fujiwara, by
Akazome Emon

Eiraku, or Yunglo, Chinese year-period, 1403-22, E. tsuho, Chinese

Eisai (1141-1215), priest

Eitai, bridge in Yedo

Ekei (d. 1600), priest, of Aki

Elder Statesmen

Elder, official over five households, under Daika

Elephant, fossil

Elixir, Hsa Fuh's quest

Emishi see Soga Emishi

Emperors, long reigns of early; see also Crown Court, Posthumous
Names, Camera government

Empo, period, 1673-80

Empress, Koken first, to receive Crown except in trust

Empress Dowager, Kwo-taiko, title given only to Kwobetsu until
Shomu's reign

Encyclopedia Britannica, quoted

Endo Morito see Mongaku

Engaku-ji, temple

Engen, period, 1336-9

Engi, period; revision of Rules and Regulations; overthrow of
Sugawara Michizane

English intrigue against Spanish and Portuguese; refuse grant in
Yedo; go to Hirado rather than Uraga; early trade; end of trade; fleet
expected (1858); Namamugi incident and bombardment of Kagoshima; the
Hyogo demonstration; employed in railway, telegraph and navy; treaty
of 1894 abolishes consular jurisdiction after 1899; Anglo-Japanese
alliance, (text)

Enkyo, period, 1069-74

En no Ubasoku (Shokaku; Gyoja, the anchorite), founder of Yamabushi

Enomoto see Yenomoto

Enryaku-ji, Tandai monastery on Hiei-zan; its armed men, yuma-hoshi;
jealous of Onjo-ji monks; in Yorimasa conspiracy; in Kyoto
conspiracy; quarrel with Takauji; feud with Hongwan-ji; destroyed by
Nobunaga; rebuilt; named from year-period

Envoys, Three, in early myth

Enya Takasada (d. 1338), Ko Moronao abducts wife of

Enyu, 64th Emperor (970-84)

Eshi, Yamato no, painters, descendants of Shinki

Esoteric and Exoteric Buddhism

Etchu, province

"Eternal Land"

Ethnologists, Japanese, on origins

Etorop raided by Russians (1806)

Eto Shimpei (1835-74), minister, revolts

Euhemerist interpretation of myths

Exoteric Buddhism

Extraterritorial Jurisdiction

Eye, obliquity, fold, etc.

Eyebrows shaved

Ezo, Buddhist mission to


Families, uji, rank in prehistoric times; basis of empire before
Daika; family qualification for highest Court offices before Heiji
tumult; names sold in Yoshimune's time

Famine of 621 A.D., turns people against Buddhism; of 1180-1; of
1462; of 1673-80; of 1783-6; of 1836

Fans; (ill.); lotteries; verses on; trade

Farmers; taxes; representatives

Fenshuiling, Russians defeated at

Fernandez, Joao (d. 1566), Portuguese Jesuit, companion of Xavier

Festivals, ancient; Buddhist; flower; Heian epoch; Ashikaga;
Hideyoshi; Sanno (ill.); dolls (ill.)

Feudal system, beginnings; Sujin; land-holding; proto-historic; land
grants; Daiho laws; 11th century wars; territorial names; Constables
and land-stewards; Joei code; war of dynasties; 15th century;
Hideyoshi's land system; fiefs (1600); hereditary vassals; laws of
1635 and 1651; under Tokugawa; sankin kotai; taxes; intermarriage
with court nobles; government; tozama oppose Yedo; in Restoration;
abolition, of

Filial piety

Finance and administration, ancient; in protohistoric tunes; in Nara
epoch; in Muromachi epoch; under early Tokugawa; policy of Arai
Hakuseki; "accommodation" system of 1786; under Tokugawa; in early
Meiji period

Finance or Treasury Department; in 19th century

Financial administrator

Firearms, first use; commissioners

Fish as food

Fishermen, revolt of

Fishing in early times; laws regulating nets in reign of Temmu;
keeping cormorants forbidden; equipment

Five Regent Houses, see Go-Sekke

Flesh-eating forbidden; defilement

Flores, Luis, Flemish Dominican, burned (1622)

Flowers, at funerals; festivals; in Heian pastimes; arrangement of;

Flutes (ill.)

Fo, dogs of

Folding paletot

Food and drink, ancient; in Nara-epoch; in Kamakura period;
Sadanobu's sumptuary laws

Football, prehistoric; in proto-historic period; in Heian epoch

Forced labour

Foreign Affairs, Department of; earliest foreign intercourse;
Ashikaga; Muromachi epoch; foreign learning; Tokugawa; military
science; Meiji era, 678; foreigners in making new Japan, 686-7;
consular jurisdiction abolished; Anglo-Japanese alliance; and see
Christianity, and names of countries

Forests of early Japan

Formosa, expedition against (1874); ceded by China (1895)

Fortification, development; feudal castles built only by permission
of Tokugawa; coast defence

Fossil remains

Franchise, extension of

Franciscans, Spanish, enter Japan "-as ambassadors"; intrigue against
Portuguese Jesuits; punished by Hideyoshi; favoured to offset Jesuit

Freemen and bondmen

French in Ryuku (1846); Harris plays off English and French to get
his commercial treaty; at Shimonoseki; in work on criminal law and
army training; in Manchuria note (1895)

Froez, Luis (d. 1597), Portuguese Jesuit

Fudoki, Local Records

Fuhi, Eight Trigrams of

Fuhito see Fujiwara Fuhito

Fuhkieri, Kublai at

Fuji river, battle on

Fuji, Mt., eruption of, (1707); (ill.)

Fujinami in Ise worship

Fujita Toko (1806-55), adviser of Nariaki

Fujitsuna see Aota Fujitsuna

Fujiwara, in Yamato, capital moved to, by Jito

Fujiwara, Shimbetsu family, influence after 670 A.D.; Imperial
consorts; legislation; historiography; Asuka made Empress; oppose
Makibi and Gembo; Buddhism; abdication; family tree; choose Emperors;
academy of; increase of power; policy of abdication; depose Yozei;
oppose Tachibana; plot against Michizane; interregnum; war of Taira
and Minamoto; influence on Court; oppose Tamehira; family quarrels;
literature; Minamoto, "claws" of; provincial branches; Mutsu; power
wanes; Imperial consorts; anti-military; power weakened by Kiyomon;
Yoritomo's followers get their estates; conspiracy of 1252; loyal to
Throne (1331); Hideyoshi adopted by

--Fuhito, son of Kamatari, Daiho and Yoro codes; builds Buddhist
temple; death

--Fujifusa, aids Go-Daigo (1326); retires

--Fusazaki (682-736), son of Fuhito, founds northern family

--Fuyutsugu (775-826); Konin revision of Rules and Regulations;
minister founds academy

--Hidehira (1096-1187), son of Motohira; aids Yoshitsune; provincial
governor (1182); death

--Hidesato (called Tawara Toda), sides with Taira; founder of
provincial branches of Fujiwara

--Hirotsugu (715-741), governor, impeaches Gembo

--Ietaka (1158-1237), poet

--Joye, Buddhist student in China (653-65)

--Kamatari, muraji of Nakatomi, chief Shinto official, plots against
Soga Iruka (645); Daika; in China; origin of uji name; Kasuga shrine;

--Kaneiye (929-99), rivalry with Kanemichi; plot against Kwazan;
regent for Ichijo

--Kanehira (1228-94), founds house of Takatsukasa

--Kanemichi (925-77), father of Enyu's Empress

--Kanezane (1147-1207), son of Tadamichi, minister of the Right;
nairan and kwampaku; descendants called Kujo

--Kinsuye (958-1029), son of Morosuke

--Kinto (966-1041) poet, one of Shinagon

--Kiyohira (d. 1126), founds Mutsu branch

--Kiyotada opposes advice of Masashige

--Korechika (974-1010), son of Michitaka

--Korekata induces Nobuyori to join Heiji plot


--Koretada (942-72), son of Morosuke, regent

--Kunimutsu, avenges his father Suketomo

--Maro (695-736), founder of Kyo-ke branch

--Masatada, governor

--Matate (716-67), second councillor under Koken

--Michiiye (1192-1252), ancestor of Nijo and Ichijo families

--Michikane (955-95), gets Kwazan to become monk; regent

--Michinaga (966-1027), regent, his daughter Empress; power

--Michinori (d. 1159), called Shinzei, Go-Shirakawa's adviser; killed

--Michitaka (953-95), regent

--Momokawa (722-79), privy councillor; favours succession of Shirakabe
and Yamabe

--Morokata aids Go-Daigo (1331)

--Moronaga (1137-92), chancellor, banished by Taira Kiyomori

--Morosuke (908-60), minister of Right; sons

--Morotada, 257; accuses Takaaki of treason

--Morozane (1042-1101)

--Motofusa (1144-1230), regent; sides with Go-hirakawa, is banished;
his daughter

--Motohira (d. 1157), son and successor of Kiyohira

--Motokata, father of Murakami's consort

--Motomichi (1160-1233), advanced by Taira Kiyomori; kwampaku;
ancestor of Konoe

--Motomitsu, founder of Tosa academy of painters

--Mototsune (836-91); sessho under Yozei, first kwampaku (882) under

--Motozane (1143-66), regent

--Muchimaro (680-736), founds the southern (Nanke) family; Buddhist

--Nagate (714-71), minister of the Left; favours accession of Konin

--Nagazane, father of one of Toba's consorts

--Nakamaro (710-64), grand councillor

--Nakanari (d. 810), in conspiracy of Kusu

--Narichika (1138-78), in Shishi-ga-tani plot

--Naritoki, father of Sanjo's Empress

--Nobuyori (1133-59), in Heiji tumult

--Norimichi (996-1075), quarrels with Go-Sanjo

--Noritane, compiler of Teiokeizu

--Otsuga (773-843)

--Sadaiye (1162-1241), or Teika, poet and anthologist

--Sadakuni, father-in-law of Daigo

--Sanetaka, minister

--Saneyori (900-70), father of Murakami's consort; regent

--Sari, scribe

--Seigwa, or Seikwa, (1561-1619), Confucianist

--Shinzei see Fujiwara Michinori

--Sukeyo, scholar

--Suketomo (d. 1325). Go-Daigo's minister, exile

--Sumitomo (d. 941) turns pirate

--Tadahira (880-949), regent; revision of Rules and Regulations

--Tadakiyo, commands against Yoritomo

--Tadamichi (1097-1164), regent for Konoe, in Hogen insurrection;
saves his father; estates

--Tadazane (1078-1162), father of Toba's consort; in Hogen tumult;
saved by his son

--Takaiye (979-1044), repels Toi invaders

--Tameiye (1197-1275)



--Tameuji, artist

--Tanetsugu (737-85); Kwammu's minister, assassinated; father of
consort of Heijo

--Tokihira (871-909), minister plots against Sugawara Michizane; death

--Tomiko, wife of Ashikaga Yoshimasa

--Toshimoto (d. 1330)

--Toshinari (1114-1204), poet, called Shunzei

--Toyonari (704-65), minister of Koken

--Tsugunawa (727-96); sent against Yemishi



--Ujimune, Jokwan revision of Rules and Regulations

--Umakai (694-736), founder of the Shiki-ki branch; against Yemishi

--Uwona (721-83), privy councillor of Koken

--Yasuhira, (d. 1189)

--Yorimichi (992-1074), son, of Michinaga, regent; in succession of
Takahito; estates; father of Shirakawa's consort

--Yorinaga (1120-56) in Hogen tumult

--Yoritada (924-89), son of Saneyori, kwampaku

--Yoritsugu (1239-56), shogun (1244)

--Yoritsune (1218-56), head of Minamoto (1219) shogun (1226); resigns
(1244); against Hojo and Adachi (1247)

--Yoshifusa (804-72), minister; marries Kiyo; regent for Seiwa, (866);
makes Taka Seiwa'a Empress

--Yoshinobu, in Takahito's succession

--Yoshitsugu (716-77), privy councillor under Koken; favours Konin

Fujiwara, wistaria, origin of uji name

Fuki-ayezu, Jimmu's father

Fukuchi-yama, castle

Fukuhara, now Kobe, villa of Taira Kiyomori in; capital (1180)

Fukuri, Chinese saddler

Fukushima Masanori (1561-1624), plot against Ishida

Funabashi Hidekata (1555-1614), scholar

Funada Yoshimasa, officer of Nitta Yoshisada

Funai, in Bungo, Jesuit church and hospital

Funanoe, mount in Hoki

Furniture, house


Furubito, Prince, son of Jomei, candidate to succeed Kogyoku; death

Furyu, dance


Fusan, Korea, Japanese restricted to, (1572); captured (1592);
landing-place for Japanese attack (1904); Kamimura wins battle near

Fushimi, 92d Emperor (1287-98)

Fushimi, princely house

Fushimi, Hideyoshi's Momo-Yaina palace

Futodama and Imibe

Gaku-in, academies


Gamo Katahide (1534-84) favours Nobukatsu

--Ujisato (1557-96), vassal of Hideyoshi

Garden bridge (ill.)

gate (ill.)

Gate guards, in capital; in kebiishi; origin

Gates, (ill.)

Gazan, priest

Gei-ami, artist


Gembo, Buddhist of Hosso sect; opposes Fujiwara

Gemmyo, 43d Empress (708-15); historiography; monument


Genbun, year-period, 1736-40, coins of

Gen-e (1269-1352), priest, author

Genealogical bureau

Genji Monogatari "narrative of Minamoto," work of Murasaki Shikibu

Genji or Gen, Chinese pronunciation of Minamoto; divisions of family;
epoch of Gen and Hei

Genku see Honen

Genna, period

Genpei (Gempei) Minamoto and Taira; epoch; Genpei Seisuiki, Records
of Minamoto and Taira

Genre pictures, Ukiyoe, 600

Genroku, year period, 1688-1703

Gensho, (44th) Empress (715-23); inaugurates lectures (721) on Nihon

Genso, priest, interpreter to Korean embassy

Gentile names

Geology and fossil remains

Germans employed by Government

Germany joins France and Russia in note on Manchuria (1895); seizes
part of Shantung

Gido, scholar, adviser of Yoshimitsu

Gien see Ashikaga Yoshinori

Gifu, Nobunaga's headquarters in Mino

Gijin see Ashikaga Yoshimi

Gion, temple in Kyoto

Glazed pottery

Glynn, J., Commander, U.S.N., in Nagasaki (1847)

Go, game

Go, prefix, "second," with Emperor's name

Goa, Jesuits at

Go-Daigo, 96th Emperor (1318-39); against Hojo; dethroned; escapes
from Oki; re-enters Kyoto; his rescripts; after restoration; tricked
by Ashikaga Takauji; death; scholarship

Go-Enyu, Northern Emperor (1371-82)

Go-Fukakusa, 89th Emperor (1246-59)

Go-Fushimi, 93d Emperor (1298-1301), son of Fushimi; opposes Go-Daigo

Go-Hanazono, 102nd Emperor (1428-65)

Gohei, paper strips

Go-Horikawa, 86th Emperor (1221-32)

Go-Ichijo, 68th Emperor (1017-36)

Goji-in, temple in Yedo

Go-Kameyama, 99th Emperor (1372-92); abdicates

Go-Kashiwabara, 104th Emperor, (1500-26)

Go-Kogon, Northern Emperor (1352-71)

Go-Komatsu, 100th Emperor (1392-1412), in Northern dynasty (1382-92)

Go-Komyo, 110th Emperor (1643-54)

Gokuki-ji or To-ji, Shingon temple in Kyoto; temple in Yedo

Gokyogoku Yoshitsune, work on landscape gardening

Gold in Japan; discovery in Mutsu, and used in great image of Buddha;
exported; coins

Gold lacquer

Golden Pavilion (1397)

Golden Tatars in China

Go-Mizu-no-o, 108th Emperor (1611-29)

Go-Momozono, 118th Emperor (1770-80)

Go-Murakami, 97th Emperor (1339-68); escapes to Kanao; asked to
return after Suko's removal; death

Go-Nara, 105th Emperor (1526-57)

Gongen see Tokugawa Ieyasu

Go-Nijo, 94th Emperor (1301-7), son of Go-Uda

Go-Reizei, 70th Emperor (1046-68)

Goro see Tokimune

Go-Saga, 88th Emperor (1243-46)

Go-Saien, 111th Emperor (1654-63)

Go-Sakuramachi, (117th) Empress (1762-70)

Go-Sanjo, 71st Emperor (1069-72), Prince Takahito

Go-Sannen, "After Three-Years War" (1089-91)

Goseibai-shikimoku, criminal laws of Yasutoki

Go-Sekke, "Five Regent Houses"

Gosen-shu, anthology

Go-Shirakawa, 77th Emperor (1156-8); camera government (1158-92);
life threatened; confined in palace; sent to Rokuhara; under
Yoshinaka's protection; opposes Yoshinaka; calls Yoritomo to Kyoto;
sends Yoshitsune to front; relations with Yoritomo; death

Go-Shu jaku, 69th Emperor (1037-45), Prince Atsunaga

Go-Toba, 82nd Emperor (1184-98), refuses to appoint Imperial prince
shogun; called "original recluse"; quarrels with Yoshitoki; exiled;
Japanese verse

Goto Matabei, defies Ieyasu; defends Osaka castle

--Yujo (1435-1512), metal-worker

Go-Tsuchimikado, 103d Emperor (1465-1500)

Go-Uda, 91st Emperor (1274-87), son of Kameyama

Government, primitive administration; connexion with worship; early
finance; reign of Suinin; two-fold classification; uji; feudal and
prefectural; under Daika; under Daiho; of Ashikaga; Hideyoshi's
scheme; early Tokugawa; Tokugawa Bakufu; centralized after
Restoration; local, in Meiji era

Governor-general of 10 provinces, kwanryo; of 4, kubo

Go Yoshihiro, swordsmith

Go-Yozei, 107th Emperor (1586-1611)

Gozu Tenno, "Emperor Ox-head," name of Susanoo

Granaries, Imperial, miyake; in Korea; in reign of Ankan; of Senkwa

Grant, U. S., suggests compromise over Ryukyu

"Great Name Possessor" myth

Great-Producing Kami

Gromovoi, Russian cruiser at Vladivostok

Guards, criticized by Miyoshi Kiyotsura; duties transferred to

Guilds, be, 71-2, 94; heads of kumi-gashira, in village rule

Gunkan Kyojujo, naval college at Tsukiji

Gwangyo-ji, temple where Kwazan took tonsure

Gyogi, Korean Buddhist priest, propaganda and reconciliation of
Buddhism and Shinto

Gyokushitsu, priest, Emperor gives purple robes to

Hachijoshima, island

Hachiman, War God, at Usa, oracle of; tutelary of Minamoto; shrine
of, in Kamakura on Tsurugaoka hill; revenue of temple; patron of
pirates; shrine of Iwashimizu; shrine at Atsuta

Hachiman Taro see Minamoto Yoshiiye

Hachioka, temple of

Hachisuka Iemasa (1558-1638)

Hades, myth of

Hae, mother of emperors Kenso and Ninken

Hagiwara Shigehide, chief of Treasury, debases coinage; his report;

Haicheng in fighting of 1894

Hair, racial mark

Hair-dressing and hair-cutting, ancient; dividing the hair (mizura)
goes out when official caps come in; tied up in time of Temmu; girl's
hair bound up by lover; in Heian epoch; in Kamakura period; in
Sadanobu's laws

Hair pins, as insignia; cicada-shaped, marks of grade after

Hai-ryong, Korea

Hakamadare Yasusake, bandit

Hakata, in Chikuzen, defended against Toi; port in Heian epoch;
Mongol envoys executed at; China trade; American vessels allowed in

Hakodate, Americans in

Hakone, tolls, at barrier; guarded by Okubo

Hakozaki Gulf, Chikuzen, Mongol landing at; bay fortified (1280);
base of second Mongol invasion

Haku-chi, "White Pheasant," second nengo or year-period (650-4 A.D.)

Hakuseki see Arai Hakuseki

Hall, Consul-General J. C., translation of Joei code; Kemmu code;
Laws of Military Houses

Han, Chinese dynasty, later (25-220 A.D.); disorder after fall of

Han, Land of, see Korea

Hanawa Naotsugu in defence of Osaka castle

Hanazono, 95th Emperor (1307-18)

Hand Bay near Kinchou; Russian gunboats in

Hanishi, potters

Haniwa, clay effigies, buried instead of human sacrifices

Haniyasu, half-brother of Sujin, rebels against him

Hansho, 18th Emperor (406-11); loyal brother of Richu

Hara, castle in Shimabara, occupied by Christians, captured

Haranobu see Takeda Shingen

Harbin, Russian railway

Hare in myth


Harima, province, fortifications in, (1280); transferred from
Akamatsu to Yamana (1441)

Harris, Townsend (1803-78), U.S. consul-general, concludes commercial
treaty (1857)

Harumoto see Hosokawa Harumoto

Harunari see Hitotsubashi Harunari

Harvest Festival

Hasegawa receive fief of Arima

--Heizo in charge of Ishikawa house of correction

Hashiba see Toyotomi Hideyoshi

--Hidekatsu (1567-93), son of Nobunaga, adopted by Hideyoshi

--Hidenaga (1540-91), brother of Hideyoshi

--Hideyasu, Ogimaru, son of Ieyasu

Hashimoto Sanae favours foreign trade; leader in Imperial movement

--Tsunatsune, Viscount (d. 1909)

Hatahi, sister of Okusaka, marries Ohatsuse

Hatakeyama family, estates; Muromachi kwanryo; one of Five Regent
Houses; in Onin disturbance; join Eastern Army (1472); "province

--Kunikiyo (d. 1364), general under Motouji, removed from office of

--Masanaga (d. 1493), succeeds Mochikuni; displaced, driven from
capital; death

--Mitsuiye (d. 1433) captures Sakai (1400); Yoshimochi's minister

--Mochikuni (1397-1455), called Tokuhon, minister for Ashikaga
Yoshimasa; succession

--Shigetada (1164-1205), at Ichi-no-tani; adviser of Yoriiye;
assassinated by Hojo Tokimasa

--Yoshinari (d. 1493), large estate, succession; kwanryo

--Yoshitoyo (d. 1499)

Hatano, brothers killed by Nobunaga

Hatsuse, Japanese battleship lost off Port Arthur

Hallo-gaki, Prohibitory Writings, code, (1742)


Hayabito or Hayato ("Falcon Men"), palace guard; possibly Kumaso

Hayama Muneyori, punished for cowardice

Hayashi family, function of reading military laws; true
Confucianists; education at Yedo

Doshun or Kazan (1583-1657), Confucianist, on bell-inscription;
ethics and history; traces descent of Emperor from Chinese prince

Harukatsu, son of Razan, historiographer

Mitsukatsu, soldier of Nobunaga

Nobuatsu, Confucianist; petitions for pardon of "47 Ronins"; lectures
at Shohei College

Razan see Hayashi Doshun

Shibei (1754-93) urges coast defense

Head, racial marks

Heaven, Plain of High, myth

"Heavenly Grandchild," tenson

Heavenlv Young Prince

Heguri, beginning of power of; descendants of Takenouchi; founder of
family, Tsuku, in Richu's reign; revolt of suppressed

Hei and Heike, Chinese name for Taira; Gen and Hei

Heian epoch, capital at Kyoto, or Heian-jo (Castle of Peace),
794-1192 A.D.

Height as sign of race

Heihachiro see Oshio Heihachiro

Heiji, year period, 1159-60; the tumult of the year; results

Heijo, 51st Emperor (806-9), son of Kwammu

Heikautai, battle of (1905)

Hemp, cultivation of

Herb of longevity

Hereditary office and rank; in Shotoku's 17-Article Constitution; the
Daika tries to abolish hereditary office holding

Hi, river, in myth

Hida, messenger in search for Buddhist devotees


Hida Takumi, architect

Hidehito see Go-Momozono

Hidekatsu see Hashiba Hidekatsu

Hideiye see Ukita Hideiye

Hidenaga see Hashiba Hidenaga

Hidetada branch of Tokugawa, extinct with Ietsugu (1716)

Hidetada see Tokugawa Hidetada

Hidetsugu see Toyotomi Hidetsugu

Hideyasu see Matsudaira Hideyasu

Hideyori see Toyotomi Hideyori

Hideyoshi see Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Hie-no-yama, monastery later called Hiei-zan

Hiei-zan, mountain N.E. of Kyoto, between Yamashiro and Omi, on which
was Enryaku-ji monastery; power checked by Yoshinori; and Takauji; in
Hokke-ikki; aids Yoshikage against Nobunaga; punished by Nobunaga;
monastery rebuilt; abbot invites Vilela to Kyoto

Higami, mother of Shomu, consort of Mommu

Higashi-dera, temple in Kyoto, Takauji's headquarters

Higashiyama, 113th Emperor (1687-1710)

Higashi-yama, hill E. of Kyoto, site of Yoshimasa's palace; name used
of craze for objets d'art, and of lacquer

Higuchi Kanemitsu, Yoshinaka's body guard

Hiki Munetomo (d. 1203)

Yoshikazu, in Bakufu council, plots against Hojo and is assassinated

Hikoho no Ninigi, his descent upon Kyushu; rationalization of myth;
founder of empire

Hinayana, exoteric Buddhism; the Small Vehicle

Hino family, shikken in Camera palace

Hirado, island, occupied by Mongols (1281); Chinese trade; Xavier in;
Portuguese trade; rivalry with Omura; Dutch headquarters, and
English; English factory closed (1623)

Hirafu, warden of Koshi, campaigns against Sushen (658-660), and
Yemishi (655)

Hiragana, syllabary

Hirai, castle

Hirasaka, now Ifuyo-saka

Hirata Atsutane (1776-1843) on Japanese government; Shinto revival;

Hirate Masahide, tutor of Nobunaga, suicide

Hirohira, son of Murakami, set aside from succession

Hirose, commander, attempts to bottle-up Port Arthur

Hirotada see Tokugawa Hirotada

Hirotsugu see Fujiwara Hirotsugu

Hirozumi see Sumiyoshi Gukei

Hisaakira, Prince (1276-1328), shogun (1289-1308)

Historiography, early; the "Six National Histories" (697-887);
compilations of Tokugawa period

Hitachi; Taira in

Fudoki, ancient record (715 A.D.)

Maru, Japanese transport sunk by Russians

Hitomaru see Kakinomoto Hitomaru

Hitotsubashi, branch of Tokugawa eligible to shogunate, named from
gate of Yedo; Ienari's descent from

Harunari, father of fenari; reactionary policy; ambition opposed by

Hiyeda Arc (647), chamberlain, historiography

Hiyoshi, Shinto temple

Hizen, Tsuchi-gumo in; Mongol invaders in (1281); natives of, settle
in China; fiefs surrendered; clan representation

--Genji, or Matsuura

"Hoe" among early implements; distributed to farmers (723)

Hoei, year-period (1704-10) debased coinage of

Ho-en, year-period (1135-40)

Hogen insurrection (1156; in year-period 1156-8); result

Hohodemi, myth of; name applied to Iware in "Chronicles"

Hojo, family holding office of shikken; power increased by Tokimasa;
Hojo regency established; excellent rule; the nine regents; control
of shogun; Oshu revolt; Go-Daigo overthrows; suicide of leaders;
Go-Daigo's rescript; part of estates seized; rising in 1334; system
imitated by the Ashikaga

--of Odawara, fight Satomi in Kwanto; alliance with Takeda; their
importance; last eastern enemy of Nobunaga; defeated by Hideyoshi

Hojoki, Annals of a Cell

Hojo Kudaiki, on Kanazawa-bunko library

--Morotoki, regent (1301-11)

--Nagatoki (1230-64), shikken (1256)

--Nakatoki, fails to arrest Go-Daigo (1331); escapes from Rokuhara

--Sadatoki (1270-1311), regent 1284-1301, and in camera to; succession
to Fushimi

--Sanetoki founds Kanazawa-bunko

--Soun, or Nagauji (1432-1519), reduces taxes; seizes Izu province

--Takaiye, commander against Go-Daigo

--Takatoki (1303-33), last of Hojo regents, 1311-33; Go-Daigo's
quarrel; suicide

--Tokifusa, leader against Kyoto in Shokyu struggle; one of first

--Tokimasa (1138-1215), guardian of Yoritomo; kills
lieutenant-governor of Izu; in Awa; in Suruga; messenger to
Yoshitsune; governs Kyoto; military regent; constables and stewards;
high constable at Court; gives power of Minamoto to Hojo; kills
Yoriiye, becomes shikken; exiled

--Tokimasu, death, (1333)

Hojo Tokimori, in southern Rokuhara

--Tokimune (1251-84), son of Tokiyori; regent (1256-84); Mongol
invasion; Buddhism, and Buddhist temples; Nichiren

--Tokisada succeeds Tokimasa as high constable at Kyoto (1186)

--Tokiuji (1203-30) in northern Rokuhara

--Tokiyori (1226-33), shikken (1246-66), Miura plot against;
cloistered regent; Buddhist temples

--Tokiyuki (d. 1353),captures Kamakura

--Tsunetoki (1224-46), shikken

--Ujimasa (1538-90), against Uesugi; ally of Shingen; defeated by

--Ujinao, son of Ujimasa

--Ujinori, brother of Ujimasa

--Ujitsuna (1487-1543), conquers Kwanto

--Ujiyasu(1515-70), conquers Kwanto

--Yasutoki (1183-1242) sent against Kyoto at outbreak of Shokyu war;
captures the capital; explains treatment of ex-Emperors; one of first
tandai; in regency; thrift and generosity; Joei code; death; Buddhist

--Yoshitoki (1163-1224), military regent, defeats Wada Yoshimori; in
council of Bakufu; in plot against Sanetomo; Go-Toba quarrels with;
attitude toward Crown; restored; death

Hokke, Hokke-shu, see Nichiren; Hokke-kyo-sutra, book of Nichiren
doctrine; Hokke-ikki, war of the sect on Hongwan-ji

Hokkyo Enzen, bonze, compiles Joei code

Hoko-ji, Buddhist temple in Asuka (587 A.D.); image; inscription on

Hoku-cho, Northern court

Hokuriku, Prince

Home Affairs, Department of, in Restoration government

Homestead, 50 houses, under Daika

Homma Saburo assassinates Hojo Suketomo

--Saemon, Hojo soldier

Homuda, life name of Emperor Ojin

Homutang, Russian stand at

Honcho Hennen-roku, or Honcho Tsugan, history

Honda Masanobu (1539-1617) adviser of Ieyasu

--Masazumi (1566-1637); Osaka castle; under Hidetada; punished for
secret marriage

--Tadakatsu (1548-1610), Ieyasu's general at Sekigahara

Honen Shonin, or Genku, (1133-1212), preaches Jodo doctrine

Hongi, Original Records of the Free People

Hongo, Yedo, college at

Hongwan-ji, Shin temple in Kyoto; monks in 16th century wars; feud
with Enryaku-ji; aid Mori, Takeda and Hojo; divided by Ieyasu

Honno-ji, temple

Hori, general of Ieyasu

Horigoe, Izu, fort

Horikawa, 73rd Emperor (1087-1107)

Horses, cavalry; "horse hunting"; wooden pictures, votive offerings;

Horyu-ji, Buddhist temple at Nara (607); ideographic inscription in;
dancers' masks and records; statues

Hoshikawa, son of Kara, seizes treasury and plots for throne

Hoshina Masayuki (1609-72), guardian of Ietsuna

Hosho-ji, temple built by Shirakawa; cherry picnics; image

Hosoi Kotaku, calligraphist

Hosokawa, Harima, manor given to Fujiwara Tameiye; family favours
Takauji; large estates; Muromachi kwanryo; one of Five Regent Houses;
power in 15th century; Yamana family; Eastern army in Onin struggle;
crushed by Miyoshi; "province holders"; in Sanuki

--Harumoto (1519-63), son of Sunimoto, in civil war; joined by Kokyo

--Katsumoto(1430-73), kwanryo; estates; feud with the Hatakeyama;
quarrels with Yamana, shitsuji; death

--Kiyouji (d. 1362), goes over to Southern Court; defeated

--Masomoto (1466-1507)

--Mitsumoto (1378-1426), minister to Ashikaga Yoshimochi

--Sumimoto (1496-1520), kwanryo, (1507); exiled

--Sumiyuki (d. 1507)

--Tadaoki (1564-1645), discloses plot against Ieyasu; tries to kill
Ishida; helps Ieyasu

--Takakuni (d. 1531); driven out by Sumimoto's son; death

--Yoriyuki (1329-92), guardian of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu; administration
and death

Hospitals, Jesuit

Hosso, first Buddhist sect in Japan (653); Gembo studies tenets

Hostages, women, "Pillow children"; of feudatories at Yedo

Hosuseri, myth of

Hotta family, Bakufu ministers from

--Masamori (1606-51), minister of Iemitsu, suicide

--Masamutsu (1810-64) aids Townsend Harris

--Masatoshi (1631-84), on succession to shogunate; chief minister;

Hotto, Buddhist abbots

Household, unit of administration under Daiho

Household Department, under Daika, and Daiho

Hsia Kwei, Kamakura painter

Hsuan-ming calendar revised (1683)

Hsu Fuh, Chinese Taoist, search for elixir of life

Hulbert, History of Korea quoted

Human sacrifice, at funerals, replaced by use of effigies, abolished;
in public works

Hun river, Manchuria

Hunting in prehistoric times; keeping dogs or falcons forbidden by

Hyakunin-isshu, "Poems of a Hundred Poets"

Hyecha, Buddhist priest, instructor of Prince Shotoku

Hyogo, now Kobe, in Ashikaga revolt; battle; trade with China;
English demonstration (1866) against

Hyuga, Kumaso in

Ibaraki-doji, bandit

Ice storage

Ichijo, 66th Emperor (987-1011)

--family, one of "Five Regent Houses"; leave Court for Tosa

--Fuyuyoshi, scholar

--Kaneyoshi (1402-81), regent, adviser of Ashikaga Yoshihisa; author;
on religions

Ichiman see Minamoto Ichiman

Ichinei (I Ning, or Nei-issan), Buddhist priest

Ichi-no-tani, near Hyogo, in Settsu, defeat of Taira at

Icho-mura, birthplace of Hideyoshi

Ideographs, Chinese, historical writing; and Japanese language; date
of introduction; adapted for syllabic purposes; in early laws

Ieharu see Tokugawa Ieharu

Iehisa see Shimazu Iehisa

Iemitsu see Tokugawa Iemitsu

Iemochi see Tokugawa Iemochi

Ienari see Tokugawa Ienari

Ienobu see Tokugawa Ienobu

Iesada see Tokugawa Iesada

Ieshige see Tokugawa Ieshige

Ietsugu see Tokugawa Ietsugu

Ietsuna see Tokugawa Ietsuna

Ieyasu see Tokugawa Ieyasu

Ieyoshi see Tokugawa Ieyoshi

Iga, Prince, see Otomo

Iharu Atamaro, leader of Yemishi (780)

Ii, adherents of Southern Court; Bakufu ministers from; tamarizume

--Naomasa (1561-1602), general at Sekigahara

--Naosuke, Kamon no Kami (1815-60), advocates foreign intercourse;
prime minister at Yedo; Tokugawa Nariaki's opposition to; foreign
policy; assassinated

--Naotaka (1590-1659), minister of Iemitsu, 581, and of Ietsuna

Ikeda Isshinsai, friend of Harunari

--Nobuteru (1536-84), councillor after Nobunaga's death; defeated

--Terumasa (1564-1613), in plot against Ishida; favours Ieyasu

Iki, island, in early myth; attacked by Toi, by Mongols; held by

Ikki, "revolt"

Ikko, Shin sect; Ikko-ikki, war of 1488

Ikkyu Zenji (1394-1481), priest of Daitoku-ji

Ikuno, silver mines

Imagawa, family, gives refuge to Ashikaga Yoshimichi; against Hojo;
in Suruga and Mikawa; Ieyasu's relations with

--Motome, general under Date Masamune

--Sadayo (Ryoshun), tandai of Kyushu; recalled

--Ujizane (1538-1614), son of Yoshimoto

--Yoshimoto (1519-60) rules Suruga, Totomi and Mikawa; threatens
Owari; defeated at Okehazama (1560)

Imai Kanehira, one of Yoshinaka's four body-guards; sacrifices
himself for his master

Imibe, corporation or guild of mourners, descent; guard Imperial
insignia; abstainers; commissary agents in provinces; in charge of

Imjin River, Korea

Immigration, shadowed in myths; from Siberia, China, Malaysia and
Polynesia; Japanese ethnologists on; of Koreans and Chinese in 3rd &
4th centuries; and later; from Shiragi (608)

Imna see Mimana

Imoko (Ono Imoko), envoy to China (607 A.D.)

Imperial lands


Imun, Korea, secured by Kudara with Japan's help

Inaba, Princess Yakami of

Masayasu, assassin of Hotta Masatoshi

Inaba-yama, castle of Saito

Inahi, brother of Jimmu

Iname see Soga Iname

Inamura-ga-saki, cliff near Kamakura

Incense fetes


India, first Japanese visitor to, Takaoka or Shinnyo

Indian architecture, influence of, through Buddhism

Indigo growing in Awa

Industrial class, in Kamakura period

Industry, early Japanese; impulse given by Buddhism in Nara epoch;
development in time of Yoshimune; modern manufactures

Infantry, use of

Inheritance, law of, in Daiho legislation; in feudal system of

I Ning see Ichinei

Inishiki, Prince

Inkyo (Ingyo), 19th Emperor (412-53)

In-memoriam services, Shinto

Inokami, consort of Konin

Inokashira lake and Yedo water-supply

Inokuma, general of the Left, executed

Ino Tadayoshi, survey of Northern islands (1800)

Inouye Kaoru, Marquis (b. 1835)

--Tetsujiro, Dr., on Bushi ethics; on Chutsz and Wang Yang-ming

Inquisitors, Bakufu officials at Court after Shokyu war

Insei see Camera government

Insignia, sacred Imperial, mirror, sword, jewel

Inspectors of district officials, after Daika; of provincial
government; in temple service

Interest on loans

Interior decoration, Yamato school

"Interior," Granary of

--Ministry of, created by Daika (645)

"Invisible" Kami

Iratsuko, rebel against Yuryaku, famous archer

Iris festival

Iroha-uta, text book

Iron in Korea; foundry at Akunpura

Irrigation, under Sujin; under Nintoku, in 6th and 7th centuries;
rice land; in Nara epoch; in Heian epoch; under Yoshimune

Iruka see Soga Iruka

Isa, early carriage-builder

Isawa, headquarters moved from Taga to

Ise, shrine of Sun at; Yamatodake at shrine; swords offered; oracle
calls Amaterasu an avatar of Buddha; Watarai shrine; revolt of 1414
in; rebuilding shrines; Oda seize; Mori insults the shrine

Ise Heishi, branch of Taira

Ise Monogatori

--Sadachika (1417-73) page of Yoshimasa; marries Yoshitoshi's sister;
influence of

Ishida Katsushige, soldier of Hideyoshi; brings about Hidetsugu's
death; ordered to Korea; plot against Ieyasu; takes Osaka; death

Ishide family in charge of Yedo prison

Ishido family favours Tadayoshi

Ishikawa Island, house of correction on

Ishikawa Jinshiro relieves suffering in Kyoto

Ishi-yama, temple

Ishizu, battle, Akiiye defeated (1338) by Ko Moronao

Iso-takeru (Itakeru), son of Susanoo

Isuraka, Korean artist

Itagaki Taisuke, Count (b. 1837); resigns from cabinet and works for
parliament; organizes Liberal party; invited into Cabinet

Itakura Katsushige (1542-1624), in bell-inscription plot; in Kyoto

--Shigemune (1587-1656), protests against Go-Komyo's activities

Italians employed by Government in fine arts

Ito Hirobumi, Prince (1841-1909); premier (1885); framer of
constitution; head of Liberal party; treaty with China; assassinated

--Jinsai (1627-1705), Confucianist, 626

--Sukechika (d. 1181), guardian of Minamoto Yoritomo; crushes
Yoritomo's army

Ito, or Wado, Chinese name for Japanese

Itsukushima-Myojin, Buddhist shrine

Itsutse, brother of Jimmu

Iwa, consort of Nintoku, of Katsuragi family

Iwai (Ihawi) ruler of Kyushu, blocks invasion of Korea (527) but is
defeated by Arakaho (528)

Iwaki, son of Kara, contests throne with Seinei

Iwaki-uji, branch of Taira

Iwakura Tomoyoshi, Prince (1825-83), leader of moderate party

Iware, life-time name of Jimmu

Iwasaka, fort in Mikawa

Iwatsuki, in Musashi, fortified

Iyo, province; oldest ideographic inscription (596 A.D.); held by

Izanagi and Izanami, male and female Kami, creators of Japanese

Izayoi-nikki, journal of Abutsu-ni

Izu, early ship-building in; Minamoto Tametomo exiled to; Yoritomo
in; peaceful under Kamakura rule; seized by Hojo Soun (1491)

Izumi province, rising of 1399 in

--Chikahira revolts against Hojo

--Shikibu, poetess of 11th century

Izumo in early myth; revolt in causes withdrawal of court from
Yamato; gems in; conquered by Mori

Jade, "curved-jewel"

Japan, name a Dutch (15th century) perversion of Jihpen; early names

Jenghiz Khan

Jerome, Father

Jesuits in Japan; banished, but stay; order to leave checked by
Hideyoshi's death; Ieyasu plays off Franciscans against; denounce
Dutch ship as pirate; treated well by Ieyasu

Jesus, Jerome de. (d. 1602), Franciscan, interview with Ieyasu

Jewel, curved, chaplet, one of Imperial insignia

Jih-pen, "Sunrise Island" name used by Chinese

Jimmu, Emperor (660-585 B.C.); chronology dating from accession;
ancestry; leader in expedition against Yamato; poem mentioning
Yemishi; strategem against Tsuchigumo; successors; tomb

Jimyo-in family, afterwards Hoku-cho or Northern Court, holding
Chokodo estates; gets throne

Jingirryo, quoted on Board of Religion

Jingo, Empress (201-69); Chinese and Japanese chronology of reign;
succession; excluded from dynasties by Dai Nihon-shi

Jingu-ji, temple built by Fujiwara Muchimaro, 192

Jinno Shotdki, "Emperor's Genealogy" work on divine right by
Kitabatake Chikafusa

Jinshin, cyclical name for 672 A.D., civil war

Jisho-ji, monastery in Higashiyama, art-gallery

Jito, (41st) Empress (690-6), wife of Temmu; historiography; Sushen

Jiyu-to, Liberal party organized by Itagaki

Joben, one of "four kings" of poetry

Jocho, wood-carver

Jodo, Buddhist sect introduced (1196) by Honen; creed

Joei, year-period, (1232-3); code of 1232; basis of Kemmu code

Jokaku, sculptor

Jokwan, year-period, revision of Rules and Regulations

Jokyo, year-period (1684-7) trade limitations

Jomei, 34th Emperor (629-41), Tamura

Jo Nagashige, provincial governor, defeated

Jorin, scholar, adviser of Yoshimitsu

Josetsu (end of 14th century), bonze of Shokoku-ji, painter

Joye see Fujiwara Joye

Juko see Shuko

Jun, mother of Michiyasu (Montoku)

Junna, 54th Emperor (824-33)

Junnin, 47th Emperor (758-64)

Juntoku, 84th Emperor (1211-21), son of Go-Toba, abdicates, called
Shin-in, "new recluse"; exiled

Juraku-tei, "Mansion of Pleasure"

Juro see Sukenari

Justice, Department of, Gyobu-sho, under Daiha; under Daiho; in Meiji

Justice, court of

Justices, land grants to

Justo Ukondono see Takayama

Kada Arimaro (1706-69) revises code

--Azumamaro (1668-1736), scholar, restores Japanese literature; quoted

Kaempfer, Engelbert (1651-1716), historian

Kagoshima, in Satsume, landing-place (1549) of St. Francis Xavier;
bombarded by English

Kagu, Mt., in sun myth

Kai, peaceful under Kamakura rule; won by Takeda Shingen; "black
horse of"

Kaigen, priest in charge of Ashikaga-gakko

Kai-koku Hei-dan, book by Hayashi Shibei, urging coast defense

Kaikwa, 9th Emperor (157-98 B.C.)

Kaizan, priest of Myoshin-ji

Kajiwara Kagetoki (d. 1200), fighting against Yoritomo, sympathizes
with him; military governor; in command of fleet quarrels with
Yoshitsune; warns Yoritomo against Yoshitsune

Kakinomoto Hitomaru, poet, end of 7th century

Kamada Masaie, companion of Yoshitomo, death

Kamako see Nakatomi Kamako

Kamakura, S. of present Yokohama, Yoritomo's headquarters; military
centre for 150 years; shrines built by Yoritomo; school of art;
growth of luxury; fall of city (1333); headquarters of Ashikaga
family; Takauji removes to Kyoto, keeping Kamakura as secondary
basis; Ashikaga driven out, Uesugi come in

--Gongoro, soldier of Three Years' War

--Jidaishi, quoted on parties in Shokyu struggle

Kamatari; see Fujiwara Kamatari

Kamegiku, dancer

Kameyama, 90th Emperor (1259-74)

Kami in Japanese mythology; "creation" of chiefs; used in
"Chronicles" of Yemishi chiefs; trinity of; two classes; the Kami
class or Shimbetsu; worship of, in early 7th century; uji no Kami
elective in Temmu's time; Shinto K., Buddha's avatars

Kamimura, Japanese admiral, crushes Vladivostok squadron

Kamitsuke (now Kotsuke), early dukedom

Kamo, Yamashiro, shrine in

Kamo Chomei, author of Hojoki

--Mabuchi (1697-1769), restores Japanese ethics; quoted

Kana, syllabary

Kana-ga-saki (Kanasaki), in Echizen, taken by Ashikaga

Kanamura, o-muraji, advises cession (512 A.D.) of part of Mimana to
Kudara; helps Kudara to get Imun (513 A.D.); puts down revolt of
Heguri Matori

Kanaoka see Koze Kanaoka

Kanazawa, fortress, in Three Years' War

Kanazawa, Prof. S., on Korean and Japanese languages

--Akitoki, son of Hojo Sanetoki

--bunko, school founded about 1270 by Hojo Sanetoki

--Sadaaki, son of Akitoki, scholar

Kane see Nakatomi Kane

Kaneakira, Prince (914-87), son of Daigo, poet

Kanenaga, Prince (1326-83), Mongol fugitives

Kanenari, Life-name of Emperor Chukyo

Kanin, princely house; Kokaku chosen from

Kanko-Maru, steamship presented by Dutch government

Kannabi, Mt., sacred rock

Kano school of painting; patronized by Tokugawa

--Masanobu see Masanobu

--Motonobu see Motonobu

Kanshin (687-763), Chinese Buddhist missionary, builds Shodai-ji

Kanzaki, port in Heian epoch

Kao, painter of Kamakura school

Kara, Princess, wife of Yuryaku

Kara, Korea; war with Shiragi

Karako, Japanese general, killed in Korea by Oiwa

Karano, 100-ft, ship (274 A.D.)

Karu, Prince, son of Inkyo, suicide

--Prince, brother of Empress Kogyoku, in Kamatari's plot; see Kotoku
son of Kusakabe, succeeds to throne; see Mommu

Kasagi, refuge of Go-Daigo

Kasai Motochika (d. 1507)

Kasanui, Shrine of

Kashiwa-bara, palace at

Kasuga, cruiser, sinks Yoshino

--shrine at Nara (767-69) in honour of Fujiwara Kamatari; school of

--Tsubone, mistress of Ashikaga Yoshimasa

Katagiri Katsumoto, bugyo of Toyotomi; bronze Buddha;

Katakana, fragments of characters, syllabary

Katana, general, suppresses Yemishi revolt

Katari-be, raconteurs

Kato Kiyomasa (1562-1611), commands second corps in invasion of
Korea; sides with Yae at court; in plot against Ishida; studies
Chinese classics

--Shirozaemon Kagemasa, potter

--Tadahiro, son of Kiyomasa, banished

--Yoshiaki (1563-1631), plots against Ishida

Katsu, Count (Rintaro), minister of Marine

Katsuiye see Shibata Katsuiye

Katsumi; see Nakatomi Katsumi

Katsumoto see Hosokawa Katsumoto and Katagiri Katsumoto

Katsura, princely house

--Taro, Prince (1849-1913), prime minister (1908-11)

Katsurabara, Prince (786-853), ancestor of Taira

Katsuragi, beginning of power of; descended from Takenouchi; Kara

Katsuragi Mount

Kawabe Nie, in Korea

Kawagoe, in Musashi, fortifications

Kawajiri Shigeyoshi, appointed to Hizen

Kawakatsu kills preacher of caterpillar worship

Kawamura at Mukden

Kawanaka-jima, battlefield

Kaya, moor of, Oshiwa murdered on; port

Kaya-no-in, consort of Toba

Kazuhito, Prince, son of Go-Fushimi; nominally Emperor (Kogon,

Kazuko, daughter of Hidetada, first Tokugawa consort

Kazumasu see Takigawa Kazumasu

Kazusa, revolt of Yemishi in; Yoritomo enters

Kebiishi, executive police (810-29)

Kegon, sect of Buddhists (736 A.D.)

Kehi-no-ura see Tsuruga

Keicho, year-period, 1596-1614, coinage of

Keicha Ajari (1640-1701), scholar

Keiki see Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Keiko, 12th Emperor (71-130); expeditions against Yemishi, against
Kumaso, and Tsuchi-gumo in Bungo; tree-worship

Keitai, Emperor (507-31); serpent worship; one province added;

Keiun, poet

Kemmu era (1334-6), restoration of; crushes military houses and puts
court nobles in power; name applied by Northern court to years 1336-8

--Shikimoku, code of 1337

Kencho-ji, Zen temple in Kamakura

Kenju, or Rennyo Shonin, (1415-99), Shin priest

Kenko, daughter of Fujiwara Yorimichi, consort of Shirakawa, mother
of Horikawa

Kenko see Yoshida Kenko

Kennin-ji, temple in Kyoto, Kao's studio in; one of the "Five";
priests alone could wear purple

Kennyo (1543-92), priest, intervenes for Sakai; guides Hideyoshi in
Kyushu; helps turn Hideyoshi against Christians

Keno no Omi, in Korea

Kenrei-mon-in, Takakura's consort, daughter of Taira Kiyomori;
drowned at Dan-no-ura

Kenshin see Uesugi Kenshin

Kenso, 23rd Emperor (485-7), originally called Oke; Yemishi do homage

Kesa, mistress of Endo Morito (Mongaku)

Keumsyong, capital of Sinra, Korea

Khilkoff, Prince, Russian minister

Khitan Tatars, in China

Ki, family founded by Ki no Tsunu, descendant of Takenouchi; eligible
to high office

--Haseo (845-912), famous scholar; plot to send him with Michizane to
China; prose

--Hirozumi, leader against Yemishi, killed by them (780)

--Kosami (733-97), general against Yemishi (789), is defeated and
degraded; report of the campaign

--Omaro, Japanese general in Korea, 6th century

--Tsurayuki (883-946), prose preface to Kokin-shu; Tosa Nikki

Kibi, old name for Bingo, Bitchu and Bizen provinces; Jimmu's stay in

--no Mabi or Makibi (693-775), Japanese student in China, minister of
the Right, inventor of syllabary; opposition to Fujiwara; minister of
the Right under Koken; opposes succession of Shirakabe (Konin); as

Kibumi, school of painters (604 A.D.)

Kidomaru, famous bandit

Kido Takamasa or Koin (1834-77), in alliance of Choshu and Satsuma

Kii, mythical land of trees; in Yamato expedition; promontory; armed
monks in Komaki war; punished by Hideyoshi (499-500); orange growing;
Tokugawa of

Kijima-yama, in Hizen, place for uta-gaki

Kikaku, verse-writer

Kikkawa in battle of Sekigahara

Motoharu (1530-86), son of Mori Motonari; adviser of Mori Terumoto;

Kikuchi, adherents of Southern Court, in Saikai-do; make trouble in
Kyushu; defeated by Otomo

Kimbusen, temple

Kimiko Hidetake in Three Years' War

Kimmei, 29th Emperor (540-71); Yemishi do homage to; intercourse with

Kinai, five home provinces; rice grants

Kinchou, 2d Army wins battle of (1904)

Kinoshita Junan (1621-98), Confucianist, father of Torasuke

--Torasuke, scholar, at Yedo

--Yaemon, father of Hideyoshi

Kinshudan, "Embroidered Brocade Discourse"

Kira family, masters of ceremonies

--Yoshihide killed by "47 Ronins" (1703)

--Yoshinaka, son of Yoshihide

Kiso river, boundary of Mino, crossed by Nobunaga (1561 and 1564)

Kiso Yoshinaka see Minamoto Yoshinaka

Kitabatake, adherents of Southern Court in Mutsu and Ise; put down by
Yoshinori; rule in Ise

--Akiiye (1317-38); raises siege of Kyoto; killed in battle


--Chikafusa (1293-1354), historian and statesman, assistant governor
of O-U; faithful to Go-Daigo; Main leader of Southern army; author of
Jinno Shotoki; attempts to unite courts; death; combines Shinto,
Buddhism and Confucianism; Shinto revival

--Mitsumase, revolts of

--Morokiyo, piracy

Kitamura Kigin (1618-1705) author

--Sessan, calligraphist

--Shuncho, son of Kigin

Kitano, Shinto officials of; tea fete

Kitashirakawa, Prince, abbot of Kwanei-ji

Kita-yama, Ashika Yoshimitsu's palace at; given to Buddhist priests

Kite, Golden

Kiuliencheng, on Yalu, centre of Kuroki's line

Kiyo, Princess, daughter of Saga

Kiyomaro see Wake Kiyomaro

Kiyomizu, temple

Kiyomori see Taira Kiyomori

Kiyosu, castle in Owari, conference of Nobunaga's vassals

--Naritada, scholar, 447

--Takenori, leader in Nine Years' Commotion, helps crush Abe Sadato
(1062); family quarrel cause of Three Years' War

Kiyowara, family eligible to high office

Ko An-mu, Chinese scholar in Japan (516 A.D.)

Ko Moronao (d. 1351), defeats Kitabatake Akiiye at Ishizu; defeats
Masatsura; shitsuji in Muromachi; plot against; killed by Uesugi

--Moroyasu (d. 1351); plot against; death

Koban, coin

Kobe, formerly Fukuhara, made capital by Kiyomori (1180); Hyogo, in
Ashikaga revolt

Koben see Myoe

Kobo Daishi, posthumous name of Kukai (q.v.)

Kobun, 39th Emperor (672), Prince Otomo (q.v.) succeeds Tenchi;
included in Dai Nihon-shi

Koeckebacker, Nicholas, Dutch factor, helps conquer castle of Kara

Koetomi, merchant, envoy to China

Kofuku-ji, Nara temple of Hosso sect; armed men of the monastery;
their quarrels and their treatment by Taira; burnt by Taira (1180);
revenue of temple

Koga, in Shimosa, seat of Ashikaga after Kamakura; Shigeuji's castle

Kogen, 8th Emperor (214-158 B.C.)

Kogon, Northern Emperor (1332-5), Prince Kazuhito (q.v.), gives
commission (1336) to the Ashikaga, and expects restoration to throne;
becomes Zen priest

Kogo-shui, ancient record quoted

Kogyoku, (35th) Empress (642-5); abdicates, becomes Empress Dowager;
again Empress see Saimei; Asuka palace; worship of silk-worm

Kohayakawa Hideaki (1577-1602), nominally against Ieyasu, but goes
over in battle of Sekigahara

--Takakage (1532-96); adviser of Mori Terumoto; general of Hideyoshi;
in Korean invasion; signs Hideyoshi's laws of 1595

Koide Hidemasa (1539-1604), guardian of Hideyori

Ko-jiki, Records of Ancient Things; to 628 A.D.; on Chuai; contains
the Kuji-hongi; preface

Kojima, adherents of Southern Court

--Takanori, defender of Go-Daigo

Kokaku, 119th Emperor (1780-1816); his rank and his father's

Koken, (46th) Empress (749-58), daughter of Shomu, known in life as
Abe; abdicates but dethrones her successor; see Shotoku, son of Kenju

Koki, Record of the Country

Kokin-shu, 10th century anthology; Ki Tsurayuki's prose preface to;
comments by Keichu

Koko, 58th Emperor (885-7), Prince Tokiyasu; couplet tournaments

Koku, coin, 438-9; unit of measure

Kokubun-ji, official provincial temples; affiliated with Todai-ji;
heavy expense of

Kokuli, Korea

Kokushi, provincial governor; appointed by Throne, first mentioned in
374 A.D.; after Daika (645); over kuni; Buddhist hierarchy

Kokyo, Osaka abbot, leads great revolt (1529)

Koma, Korea, now Pyong-yang; increase of power; attacked by Kudara
and Japan; families in Japanese nobility; falls; migration; ruler of
Pohai recognized as successor of dynasty of; envoys; Mongol invasion

Koma, suzerain of Aya-uji, assassinates Sashun

Koma-gori, in Musashi, settlement in Japan from Koma

Komaki war (1583), named from Komaki-yama

Komei, 121st Emperor (1846-67)

Komon Mitsukuni

Komura Jutaro, Marquis (1853-1911), minister of foreign affairs,
peace commissioner at Portsmouth

Komyo, Imperial name of Asuka, wife of Shomu and mother of Koken;
story of miraculous conception

Komyo, Emperor (1336-48) of Northern dynasty, brother of Kogon;
abdicates and becomes Zen priest

Kondo, branch of Fujiwara in Kwanto

Kongobo-ji, Shingon temple on Koya-san

Konin, 49th Emperor (770-81), formerly Prince Shirakabe; reforms
local administration; festival of his birthday, Tenchosetsu

Konin, year-period (810-24) and revision of Rules and Regulations

Konishi Yukinaga (d. 1600), commands first division in Korean
invasion (1592); entrapped by Chinese diplomacy; with last troops in
Korea; opposes Kato; against Ieyasu; death

Konno, swordsman

Kono family in Iyo

Konoe, 76th Emperor (1142-55)

Konoe, Imperial guards; origin; name given to Fujiwara Motomichi's
descendants, kwampaku alternately with Kujo; one of "Five Regent

--Prince, leader of moderate party

--Nobuhiro (1593-1643), minister of Right

--Sakihisa (1536-1612), envoy to Shin monks

Korai, or Koma, Korea

Korea, alphabet; architecture; artisans; Buddhism; China, relations
with; chronology; language; music; myth; pottery, sepulchral;
scholars; treasury, Japanese; early intercourse with Japan; Jingo's
conquest; granary; Japanese relations in 540-645; families in
Japanese nobility; war between Japan and China for; precious metals;
8th century relations; Mongol invasion; Japanese piracy; Hideyoshi's
invasion; Arai Hakusekai's policy toward envoys; break with (1873);
treaty (1875); Chinese activity in, 699-700; independence recognized
by 1895 treaty; Russian aggression; Japan's interests in, recognized
by Treaty of Portsmouth; Japanese occupation and annexation

Korehito, Prince, Emperor Seiwa

Korei, 7th Emperor (290-215 B.C.)

Korekimi see Fujiwara Korekimi

Koretaka, Prince (844-97), Buddhist monk and poet

Koreyasu, Prince, shogun, (1266-89)

Korietz, Russian gunboat at Chemulpo

Koriyama, in Yamato, castle commanding Izumi and Kii

Koromo, tunic, and name of a fort

Koromo-gawa, campaign on, against Yemishi

Kosa, abbot of Ishi-yama monastery

Koshi, Yemishi in

Kotesashi moor, Takauji defeated at

Koto, lute

Kotoku, 36th Emperor (645-54); Yemishi do homage to (646)

Kotsuke, early Kamitsuke, a dukedom; revolt of Yoshinaka in, (1180);
won by Kenshin; silk growing in

Koya, reptile Kami of; snow festival of

Koyama, branch of Fujiwara in Kwanto; one of "8 Generals" of Kwanto

Koyane (Ame-no-Koyane) ancestor of Nakatomi

Koya-san, mountain in Kii, temple of Kongobo-ji; threatened after
Komaki war; shrine; nobles enter

Koyomaro, warden of Mutsu, killed by Yemisi (724)

Koze (Kose); family descended from Takenouchi

Koze Fumio, scholar; Chinese prose

--Kanaoka (850-90), painter and landscape artist of Kyoto; school,

Kublai Khan and the Mongol invasion

Kubo, governor general of 4 provinces

Kuchiki Mototsuna (1549-1632) at battle of Sekigahara

Kuchinotsu, port, Jesuits invited to

Kudara, Korea, now Seoul; Japanese alliance; weaver from; scribe;
relations with Yuryaku; story of Multa; invaded by Koma; secures
Imun; gains through friendship of Japan; Buddhism; wars with Shiragi
and Koma; crushed by Shiragi and China; migration from

Kudara Kawanari, painter

Kudo Suketsune, killed in vendetta (1193)

Kuga family, eligible for office of highest rank

--Nagamichi, minister under Go-Daigo

Kugeshu-hatto, Ieyasu's law for Court nobles

Kugyo (1201-19), son of Yoriiye, assassinates Sanetomo

Kuhi brings scales and weights from China

Kujihongi, history

Kujo, descendants of Fujiwara Kanezane, chosen Kwampaku alternately
with Konoe; one of "Five Regent Houses"

Kukai (posthumously, Kobo Daishi), (774-835) Buddhist priest, called
by some inventor of mixed Shinto; founder (809) of Shingon (True
Word) system, calligrapher, and inventor of hira-gana syllabary;
portrait; shrine (ill.)

Kuma, Southern tribe

Kumagaye Naozane (d. 1208), kills Taira Atsumori

Kumaso, early inhabitants of Kyushu; possibly of Korean origin; may
be identical with Hayato; called Wado by Chinese; Keiko's expedition
against; Chuai's expedition

Kume, Dr., on Yamato-dake's route of march; on Takenouchi-no-Sukune

--Prince, dies on expedition to Shiragi


Kumebe, palace guards

Kunajiri, Russians seized at (1814)

Kuno, castle of, in Totomi

Kurama, temple of, Yoshitsune escapes from

Kurando or Kurodo, Imperial estates bureau, office established;
K.-dokoro precursor of kwampaku; held by Minamoto Yorimasa

Kurayamada, conspirator against Soga; suicide

Kuriles, Russians in; Japanese title recognized

Kuriyama Gen, contributor to Dai Nihon-shi

Kuro, lady of Takenouchi family

Kuroda Nagamasa (1568-1623) soldier of Hideyoshi; against Ishida;
favours Ieyasu; studies Chinese classics

Kurodo see Kurando

Kuroki, Ibei, Count (b.1844), commands on Yalu; defeats Russians;
head of 1st Army; attempts to turn Russian flank; at Mukden

Kuromaro see Takamuku Kuromaro

Kuropatkin, Alexei Nikolaievitch (b.1848), Russian commander-in-chief
in Manchuria; plans before and after Liaoyang; succeeded by

Kusaka, defeat of Jimmu at

Kusakabe, Prince, (d. 690) son of Temmu and Jito

Kusano support Southern Court

Kusu (Kusuriko), daughter of Fujiwara Tanetsugu, consort of Heijo

Kusu, wife of Oto, kills him

Kusunoki, adherents of Southern Court

--Jiro, in attack on palace (1443)

--Masahide rebels in 1428

--Masanori (d. 1390) minister; joins Northern party, returns to

--Masashige (1294-1336), called Nanko, defender of Go-Daigo;
provincial governor; against Ashikaga; death, (ill.)

--Masatoki, death

--Masatomo defeats Nobunaga in Ise

--Masatsura (132648), son of Masashige; receives Go-Daigo in Yoshimo;
campaign in Settsu

Kuwana, castle of Takigawa Kazumasu, in Ise

Kuzuno, Prince, son of Kobun, sacrifices his claim to throne (696)

Kuzuo, in Shinano, castle

Kivaifu-so, anthology of poems (751)

Kwaikei, sculptor

Kwammu, 50th Emperor (782-805), formerly Yamabe; changes capital to
Kyoto (792); posthumous names first used; sends Saicho to study
Chinese Buddhism

Kwampaku, regent for grown Emperor, mayor of palace, office
established (882); decline of power under Go-Sanjo; foreshadowed by
Kurando-dokoro; chosen alternately from Kujo and Konoe; office
abolished after Kemmu restoration; unimportant after Tokugawa period

Kwampei era (889-97), Counsels of, Uda's letter to Daigo

Kwanei, year period, (1621-43); Kwanei Shake Keizu-den, genealogical
record; Kwanei-ji, temple

Kwangaku-in, uji academy, founded (821)

Kwangtung peninsula, in battle of Kinchou

Kwang-wu, Chinese emperor, Japanese envoy to

Kwanji, period, (1087-94)

Kwanki, period, (1229-32), crop failure and famine

Kwanko see Sugawara Michizane

Kwanno Chokuyo establishes school in Yedo

Kwannon, Mercy, Buddhist goddess; Shirakawa's temple; temple at

Kwanryo, governor general; list of Kamakura k.; title passes from
Ashikaga to Uesugi family; also given (1367) to shitsuji in shogun's
court, and held by Shiba, Hosokawa and Hatakeyama families; compared
with shikken and betto

Kwansei, year-period, 1789-1800, vagabonds in Yedo during

Kwanto, or Bando, many shell-heaps in; army raised in, against
Yemishi; Taira and Minamoto fight in; Minamoto supreme in; Ashikaya
supreme; Eight Generals of, combine against Uesugi; battle-ground;
war between branches of Uesugi and Hojo and Satomi; in Battle Period

Kwazan, 65th Emperor (985-6)

Kwobetsu, families of chieftains of the conquest, Imperial class;
pre-historic administration; classification in Seishwoku; revolt;
rank of Empress

Kyaku, "official rules" supplementing Yoro laws; revised; (819)

Kyogen, comic play

Kyogoku, one of four princely houses

--Takatsugu (1560-1609)

Kyoho, year-period, (1716-35); K.-kin, coins then minted

Kyong-sang, Korea

Kyoriku, verse-writer

Kyoroku, year-period, (1528-31)

Kyoto, capital 794 A.D.; two cities and two markets; capital
momentarily moved to Fukuhafa (1180); evacuated by Taira (1183);
school of art; culture; Go-Daigo's conspiracy; in war of dynasties;
Takauji removes to; ravaged; Nobunaga restores order; under
Hideyoshi; Portuguese; Xavier; Jesuits; Vilela; Franciscan church;
patent to missionaries; shogun's deputy in; Ieyasu; Iemitsu's
demonstration against; Court excluded from power; vendetta illegal
in; great fire (1788); rebuilding; government; loyalist intrigues in:
extremists driven from; foreign ministers invited to

Kyuka, priest

Kyushu, early myth; expedition against Yamato; situation; Kingdom
called Wo by Chinese; government station; Keiko's expedition against
Kumaso; granary; trade; Mongol invasion; revolt of 1349; taken from
Ashikaga; disorder; piracy; great families; Hideyoshi's invasion;
early European intercourse; Christians

Lacquer, trees, planting of, required for tenure of uplands;
development of art in Nara epoch; in Heian; ware exported;
manufacture in time of Yoshimasa; (ill.)

Ladies-in-waiting, uneme, at early court; dancers; Yoshimune's

Land and land-holding, pre-historic; royal fees; taxation; Daika
reform; all land Crown property; 6-year lease; sustenance grants lead
to feudalism; Daiho laws; reclaimed uplands; centralized holdings,
8th century; grants for reclamation; maximum holdings; abuses in
system; large estates; Go-Sanjo's reforms; territorial name;
constables and stewards; Shokyu tumult; new distribution; Joei laws;
Go-Daigo's grants; estates under Ashikaga; military holdings; tax;
Crown lands pass to military houses; Hideyoshi's laws; taxes

Landscape-gardening, in the Heian epoch; in Kamakura period;
patronized by Yoshimasa, in Muromachi epoch; at Momoyama

Land steward, jito, and chief steward, so-jito, in Yorikomo's reform
of land; shimpo-jito, land holders and stewards after the Shokyu war

Language; in Heian epoch; difficulties for preaching

Lanterns, (ill.)

La Perouse, Strait of, claimed as Russian boundary

Law, in time of Ojin; criminal, protohistoric period; of Daiho; code
of 1232 A.D.; Kemmu code; Hideyoshi's legislation; Laws of Military
Houses; Laws for Court Nobles; of Iemitsu and Ietsuna; real code; in
Tokugawa period; codified after Restoration; Department, in Meiji

Leech, first offspring of Izanagi and Izanami

Left Minister of, Sa-daijin, office created by Daika

Legs, length, as racial mark

Lese Majeste under Daiho code

Liao River, Russians forced into valley of

Liaotung peninsula, Chinese forces in, (1592), defeated by Japanese;
fighting in 1894 in; Russian lease of

Liaoyang, battle of

Liberal party, Jiyu-to organized (1878) by Itagaki; unites with
Progressists and forms Constitutionist party

Library of Kanazawa-biwko; of Shohei-ko; of Momijiyama Bunko; and

Liefde, Dutch ship

Li Hung-chang (1823-1901), Chinese plenipotentiary for peace of 1895

Li Lungmin, artist

Linievitch, Nikolai Petrovitch (b.1834), Russian general, succeeds
Kuropatkin in command, defeated at Mukden

Literature, in Nara epoch; in Heian epoch; in Tenryaku era, 261; in
Kamakura epoch; in Muromachi period; under Hideyoshi; place of, in
Military Houses' Laws; in Court Laws; Ieyasu's attitude; Tsunayoshi
encourages Japanese and Chinese; favoured by Yoshimune; Japanese,
restoration of; foreign; Chinese

Liu-Jen-kuei, Chinese general, defeats Japanese in Korea (662 A.D.)

Lloyd, Rev. A., on Buddhism, Tendai, Hosso; and Shinto

Longevity, herb of

Longford's Korea cited

Loochoo see Ryukyu Islands


Lotus festival

Loyalty, in early times; in Heian epoch; in Tokugawa period

Lute, of Susanoo; the koto, made from the ship Karano; biya,
4-stringed Chinese lute

Mabuchi see Kamo Mabuchi

Macao, trade with; Jesuits there; annual vessel from; embassy of 1640

Machado, Joao Baptista de (1581-1617), Jesuit, executed

Machi-ya, shop

Madre de Dios, Pessoa's ship

Maeda Gen-i or Munehisa (1539-1602), guardian of Oda Nobutada's son
Samboshi; in charge of Kyoto Buddha

--Toshiiye (1538-99), fails to help Shibata Katsuiye; commands armies
in Komaki war, and against Hojo; one of 6 senior ministers; attempt
to make break between Ieyasu and; death

--Toshinaga (1562-1614), son of Toshiiye, favours Ieyasu; simulates

Magic and incantations, of Buddhist abbot Raigo; general belief in

Mahayana, Great Vehicle, esoteric Buddhism

Mahitotsu, metal worker

Makaroff, Stephan Osipovitch (1848-1904), Russian admiral drowned
with Petropavlovsk

Maketsu, Chinese or Korean spinning woman, immigrant to Japan

Maki, wife of Hojo Tokimasa, favours her son-in-law, Minamoto

Makibi see Kibi no Mabi

Makura Soshi, book by Sei Shonagon

Mallets and "mallet-headed" swords

Mamiya Rinzo (1781-1845) discovers (1826) that Saghalien is not part
of continent

Mamta, Prince, in charge of Record of Uji

Manabe Norifusa, minister under Ienobu, and Ietsugu; removed from
Treasury by Yoshimune

Manchu-Korean subdivision of Asiatic yellow race

Manchuria, in colonization from northern China; part ceded to Japan
by treaty of 1895, but not occupied after Russian, German and French
note; Russian designs upon; Russia's failure to evacuate, and
negotiations over "open door"; Russo-Japanese war; evacuation of,
provided for by treaty of Portsmouth; Japanese position in

Man-dokoro, administration bureau, one of three sections of Bakufu,
formerly called kumon-jo; in administration of Kyoto after Shokyu
war; in Muromachi administration

Maneko, atae of Iki, suicide

Man-en, year-period, 1860, coinage of

Manhattan, American ship, enters Uraga

Mannen tsuho, coin

Manners and customs, remote; in time of Yuryaku; in Muromachi period

Manors, large estates, shoen; attempts to regulate; koden, tax free,
granted to Taira after Heiji tumult; Yoritomo's memorial on; abuses
of, remedied by appointment of constables and land stewards;
distribution after restoration of Kemmu; gifts of Takauji

Manumission of slaves

Manyo-shu, "Myriad Leaves" first Japanese anthology; compared with
Kokinshu; on character of soldier; comments on, by Keichu

Map, official, begun under Hideyoshi

Market Commissioners, after Daika

Markets, ichi, in early Japan; in Nara epoch

Marquis, asomi, title established by Temmu

Marriage in early Japan; and the festival of utakai; none recognized
among slaves by Daika; in Nara and earlier epochs; in laws of
Military Houses; between military and court families; child marriage

Marubashi Chuya, leader in revolt of 1651

Masa, daughter of Hojo Tokimasa, mistress of Minamoto Yoritomo;
mother of Yoriiye and the power, with Tokimasa, in his
administration; saves Sanetomo; plea to generals of Bakufu; death

Masakado see Taira Masakado

Masanobu (1453-90), painter

Masanori see Kusunoki Masanori

Masashige see Kusunoki Masashige

Masatomo see Ashikaga Masatomo

Masatoshi see Hotta Masatoshi

Masayasu see Inaba Masayasu

Masks for dances, sculptured; no masks

Masses, Buddhist

Masuda Nagamori (1545-1615), one of 5 administrators, plots with
Ishida against Ieyasu; enters monastery after Sekigahara

Masukagami, history of 1184-1333, on literature

Mats, tatami, floor-coverings; tatsu-gomo

Matsubara, Pine Plain

Matsudaira, origin of family; of Aizu, etc.

--Hideyasu (1574-1607), son of Ieyasu

--Masatsuna (1567-1648), Tokugawa agent in Kyoto

--Mitsunaga (1615-1717), punished by shogun

--Motoyasu see Tokugawa Ieyasu

--Nobutsuna (1596-1662), minister of Iemitsu, and of Ietsuna

--Norimura, minister of Yoshimune, drafts code (1742); succession to

--Sadanobu (1758-1829), revises code; minister under Ienari; sumptuary
laws; educational reforms; retires; matter of rebuilding palace; rank
of Tsunehito and Hitotsubashi Harunari; revises rules of procedure

--Tadanao, punished by Tokugawa in 1623

--Tadatem (1593-1683), daimyo of Echigu; removed

--Yoshinaga, baron of Echizen, advocates foreign trade; importance in
new Japan

Matsukura Shigemasa (1574-1630), persecutes Christians, urges
conquest of Philippines

Matsumae, ruling Northern islands, clash with Russians

Matsuriaga Hisahide (1510-77), kills Norinaga and the shogun
Yoshiteru; ally of Shingen

Matsuo Basho (1644-94), verse writer

Matsushita Yukitsuna, soldier under whom Hideyoshi served

Matsuura, in Hizen, Toi attack unsuccessfully; branch of Minamoto;
support Southern Court; attitude toward Xavier

Mayor of the palace, kwampaku

Ma Yuan, painter

Mayuwa kills Anko

Measures, early; standard (senshi-mashu) of Go-Sanjo; in Hideyoshi's


Medicine-hunting, early court amusement

Meiji, "Enlightened Government" year-period 1868-1912; posthumous
name of Mutsuhito

Meitoku, year-period, 1390-3, and the rising of 1391

Men, ideographic Japanese used by

Menju Shosuke, impersonates Shibata Katsuiye and saves him

Mercy, goddess, Kwannon

Merit lands, Koden, granted for public services

Mexico, Spanish ships from

Michelborne, Sir Edward, on Japanese sailors (1604 or '5)

Michi no Omi, ancestor of Otomo

Michinaga see Fujiwara Michinaga

Michiyasu, Prince; Emperor Montoku (q.v.)

Michizane see Sugawara Michizane

Mikado, origin of title; name appropriated for residence of Soga

Mikata-ga-hara, war of, (1572-3)

Mikawa, province, Oda defeat Imagawa in; fighting in Komaki war

Mikena, brother of Jimmu

Military Affairs, in ancient Japan; first conscription (689 A.D.);
organization under Daiho; during Nara epoch; improvement in
organization in 12th century; development of tactics; foreign
military science; conscription laws and samurai; new army justified
by Satsuma rebellion; modern army organization

Military Art of Bushi

--class, shi; in Kamakura period

--code, Gumbo-ryo, of Daiho laws

--dues, Buke-yaku

--ethics, and Primer of Yamaga Soko

Military houses, buke, rise in 8th century; 10th; 11th; power
increased by Hogen and Heiji insurrections; Minamoto ideals;
finances; crushed by Kemmu restoration; Northern Court follows system
of; in Ashikaga times; Onin disorder; Muromachi period; land
holdings; power in Tokugawa period; Laws of; intermarry with Court
nobles; weakness

Militia, kondei, in 8th century


Milky Way in myth

Millet as substitute for rice

Mimaki, life-time name of Emperor Sujin

Mimana (Imna), Japanese name for Kara, Korea; Japanese influence
there; Tasa leads revolt in; part ceded to Kudara; Keno in; pretended
expedition against; Shiragi overpowers; Japan intervenes in war
between Shiragi and; Shiragi invades (622); families from, in 9th
century nobility

Mimasaka, province, given to Yamana family (1441)

Mimashi, Korean teacher of music (612 A.D.)

Mime, Dengaku

Mimoro, Prince

Mimoro, Mt., in early myth; Kami of, a serpent

Minamoto, princely family; Fujiwara take wives from; generals of
Imperial guards; called Gen and Gen-ji; academy; manors and troops;
win Taira estates; quarrel with Taira; revolt against Fujiwara;
literature; military power in provinces, especially Kwanto; "claws"
of Fujiwara; provincial branches; war with Taira; power taken by Hojo

--Hikaru (845-913), son of Nimmyo, accuses Sugawara Michizane; death

--Hiromasa (918-80), musician

--Ichiman (1200-3), candidate for shogun, killed

--Kanetsuna, in Yorimasa conspiracy

--Kugyo see Kugyo

--Mitsukune, erects monument to Kusunoki Masashige

--Mitsumasa, founder of Suruga Genji

Minamoto Mitsunaka (912-97), reveals conspiracy against Fujiwara
(967); his influence; founder of Shinano Genji; the two swords

--Nakaakira, killed with Sanetomo by Sugyo

--Narinobu, poet

--Noriyori (1156-93), sent against Yoshinaka; at Ichino-tani; commands
force (1184-5); blocks Taira from withdrawing into Kyushu;

--Sanetonio (1192-1219), rival of Ichiman; blocks Hojo designs;
attempt to assassinate him; death; patron of Fujiwara Tameiye

--Senju-maru (1201-14), revolt, execution

--Shigenari, pretends to be Yoshitomo

--Shitago (911-83), litterateur

--Tadaaki, in capture of Rokuhara

--Tametomo (1139-70), great warrior of Hogen tumult; exiled to Izu;
advice not followed

--Tameyoshi, in Hogen, tumult

--Tomomasa, Maki's candidate for shogun, killed

--Toru (822-95), minister of the Left under Uda

--Toshikata (959-1027), poet, one of Shi-nagon

--Tsunemoto (894-961), Prince Rokusoh, founder of Seiwa Genji; in
beginning of hostilities with Taira

--Wataru, husband of Kesa

--Yorichika (d. 1117), ancestor of Suruga Genji

--Yoriiye (1182-1204), succeeds (1199) as lord high constable and
chief landsteward; as shogun (1202); killed by Tokimasa

--Yorimasa (1106-80), sides with Taira, killed

--Yorimitsu (944-1021), soldier; aids Michinaga; at Court

--Yorinobu (968-1048); governor of Xai, drives back Taira Tadatsune;
helps Michinaga

--Yoritomo (1147-99), son of Yoshitomo; escapes after Heiji war; war
of 1180; army crushed; gains; quarrels with Yoshinaka; called to
Kyoto; sent against Yoshinaka; relations with Yoshitsune; Bakufu
independent of Court; memorial on manors; becomes sei-i tai-shogun;
death and character; patron of Saigyo Hoshi; system imitated by

--Yoriyoshi (995-1048); in Nine Years' Commotion

--Yoshichika (d. 1117) rebellion put down by Taira Masamori

--Yoshihira, son of Yoshitomo

--Yoshiiye (1041-1108); great archer; called Hachiman Taro, in Nine
Year's Commotion and Three Year's war; helps put down disorder of
Enryaku-ji monks


--Yoshimitsu (10567-1127), founder of Tada Genji; in Three Years' War

--(Kiso) Yoshinaka (1154-84), revolts in Shinano-Kotsuke; quarrels
with Yoritomo; defeats Taira at Tonami-yama; Go-Shirakawa joins;
tries to get crown for Hokurika; death

--Yoshitaka marries Yoritomo's daughter; death

--Yoshitomo, supports Go-Shirakawa in Hogen tumult; joins in plot of
Heiji; advice overruled by Nobuyori, killed; his sons; loses great
land holdings

--Yoshitsuna (d.1134), brother of Yoshiiye

--Yoshitsune (1159-89), son of Yoshitomo, escapes after Heiji tumult;
joins Yoritomo; sent against Yoshinaka; at Ichi-no-tani; wins battle
of Yashima; relations to Yoritomo; attempted assassination; protected
by Fujiwara Hidehira, suicide

--Yukiiye (d. 1186); repeatedly defeated; joins Yoskinaka; Yoshinaka
disapproves his choice to be governor of Bizen; summary criticism of
him; turns to Yoshitsune, death

--Yukitsuna betrays Shishi-ga-tani plot (1177), 296; occupies Settsu
and Kawachi (1183)

Mincho, called Cho Densu, (1352-1431), painter

Ming, Chinese Emperor, mission for Buddhist Sutras; dynasty, its fall

Mining, Ieyasu's efforts (1609) to develop

Ministers, system of three, under Daika; members of Privy Council
Board under Daiho; Hideyoshi's system; council of, separated from
shogun; senior and junior ministers

Mino, province, Oda defeat Saito in

Miroku (Sanskrit Martreya), stone image of, brought to Japan (584

Mirror, in myth of Sun-Goddess; one of Imperial insignia; bronze, in
sepulchral remains

Mishchenko, Russian general, leads cavalry raid after fall of Port

Misumi, adherents of Southern Court, in Sanin-do

Mita, Korean architect

Mitigations (roku-gi) of penalty of Daiho code for rank, position
and public service

Mito, Tokugawa of

Mitoshi, a Kami

Mitsubishi Company, first private dockyard

Mitsuhide see Akechi Mitsuhide

Mitsukuni see Tokugawa Mitsukuni

Mitsunobu (Tosa no M.), painter, founder of Tosa school of painting

Miura branch of Taira; plot against Hojo

Mitsuinura (d. 1247), suicide

--Yasumara (1204-47), in war with Hojo


--Yoshizumi (1127-1200), in Bakufu

Miwa Sako, commander of palace guards

Miyake Atsuaki, contributor to Dai Nilon-shi

Miyoshi, scholars in Ashikaga administration; lecturers; in civil war
of 1520-50; crush Hoshokawa; in Awa; attempt to take Kyoto

--Kiyotsura (847-918); memorial (914), on writing; Chinese scholar

--Masanaga, inheritance

--Miyoshi Motonaga

--Nagateru (d. 1520), guardian of Hosokawa Sumimoto and Takakuni; death

--Norinaga, called Chokei (1523-64), in civil war

--Yasunobu (1140-1221), son of Yoritomo's nurse; ancestor of Ota and
Machino uji; in Bakufu council; advice at beginning of Shokyu
struggle; death

--Yasutsura, with Hojo Yasutoki plans Joei code

--Yoshitsugu (d.1573), revolts in Settsu

Mizugaki, Sujin's court at

Mizuha, life time name of Emperor Hansho

Mizuno, governor of Nagasaki, persecutes Christians

--Echizen no Kami, prime minister of Ieyoshi, sumptuary laws and
efforts at reform (1826)

Mochifusa see Uesugi Mochifusa

Mochihito, Prince, (1150-80), Yorimasa conspiracy

Mogami of Yamagata

--Yoshiakira (1546-1614), one of Ieyasu's generals

Moho, variant name of Sushen or Toi

Momijiyama Bunko, Tokugawa library at Yedo

Mommu, 42nd Emperor (697-707), Prince Karu, accession; succession and
plan to move capital

Momokawa see Fujiwara Momokawa

Momonoi family favours Tadayoshi

Momo-yama, "Peach Hill," in Fushimi, Hideyoshi's palace; last epoch
of Ashikaga shogunate; palace destroyed (1596); Ieyasu's castle taken

Momozono, 116th Emperor (1735-62)

Mon, coin

Mongaku, priest, originally Endo Morito, aids Yoritomo

Mongol, subdivision of yellow race; fold of eye; invasion

Monju-dokoro, Bakufu department of justice; in administration of
Kyoto after Shokyu war; power passes to Hyojoshu; in Muromachi

Monkey, worship of; female divinity

Mononobe, palace guard; uji of Kwami class, important especially in
Yuryaku's reign; oppose Buddhism

Moriya, o-muraji, killed by Soga; their rivalry; opposes Buddhism;
supports Anahobe; final contest with Soga; property

--Okoshi, o-muraji; opposes Buddhism

Montoku, Emperor (851-58), chronicle of reign

Montoku Jitsuroku, National History

Monto-shu, Shin sect

Moon, Kami of

Moonlight festivals

Mori Arinori, Viscount (1847-89), minister of public instruction,

Mori family, rapid rise in power; Ashikaga Yoshiaki turns to

--Hidemoto (1579-1650), in Ishida's army

--Motonari (1497-1571), wins power of Ouchi

--Motonori (1839-96), of Choshu, leader of extremists, expelled from

--Nagayoshi (1558-84), general of Hideyoshi

--Rammaru, lieutenant of Nobunaga

--Terumoto (1553-1625) loses central Japan to Hideyoshi; Akechi
Mitsuhide joins; peace with Hideyoshi; senior minister; signs
Hideyoshi's laws; favours Ishida, leads his army; loses estates

Morihito, Emperor Nijo

Morikuni, Prince (1301-33), shogun, (1308-33)

Morimasa see Sakuma Morimasa

Morinaga, Prince, (1308-35), called Oto no Miya, son of Go-Daigo, and
his defender; commander-in-chief; death

Moriya see Mononobe Moriya

Morosada, Prince, see Kwazan

Moroya, chief of Otomo, o-muraji

Morrison, American ship in Yedo, 1837

Mother-of-pearl and lacquer

"Mother's Land," Shiragi, Korea

Motien Mountains, Russian campaign planned in

Motonobu (1476-1559), painter, Kano school

Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801), Shinto revival; quoted; on Shinto

Mourning colour, white, earlier, black; customs; periods of, varying
with rank

Moxa, medicinal herb, touch of, defilement

Mu Hsi, painter

Mukden, Russian railway through; battle of (1905)

Muko, Fukuhara harbour

Mukuhara, Buddhist temple at

Mulberry, early culture; used with hemp to make cloth; order for
cultivation (472 A.D.); planting of, condition of tenure of upland

Multa, King of Kudara, stories of his cruelty told of Emperor Muretsu

Munemara, chief of trade

Munetada see Tokugawa Munetada

Munetaka, Prince (1242-74), shogun in 1252-66

Munetake see Tokugawa Munetake

Munro, N. G., on Japanese archaeology; imibe; rice-chewers; coins

Muraji, "chief," title; applied to pre-conquest (Shimbetsu) rulers;
o-muraji, head of o-uji; inferior title in Temmu's peerage

Murakami, 62nd Emperor (947-67)

Murakami Genji, branch of Minamoto

--Yoshihiro, of Iyo province, pirate chief

--Yoshikiyo (1501-73), driven from Kuzuo by Takeda Shingen

--Yoshiteru impersonates Morinaga

Murasaki Shikibu (d. 992), writer of Genji Monogatari

Muravieff, Nikolai Nikolaievich (d. 1881), Russian commander in Far
East, claims (1858) Saghalien

Murdoch, J., quoted on Tadatsune's ravages of Kwanto; on Heian epoch;
weakening of Fujiwara power; Bushi of Kwanto; Joei code; downfall of
Bakufu; feudalism in war of dynasties; literati in Ashikaga
administration; Kamakura rule in Kai, Izu and Mutsu; revolt of 1443

Muretsu (Buretsu), 25th Emperor (499-506)

Muro Nawokiyo, or Kyuso, (1658-1734). Confucianist, historian of "47
Ronins"; adviser to shogun

Muromachi, part of Kyoto, administrative headquarters of Ashikaga;
Ashikaga shoguns at

Musashi, immigrants from Koma settle in; war of Taira and Minamoto
in; Hojo and Uesugi in

Mushroom picking

Music, Korean and Buddhist; and poetry; in Heian society; joruri

Muso Kokushi, "National Teacher," or Soseki (1271-1346), scholar;
head of Tenryuji

Muto, branch of Fujiwara in Kwanto

--Sukeyori, founder of Shoni family

Mutsu, 5 provinces, in Nara epoch, N. E. and N. littoral; the Nine
Years' Commotion (1056-64) in; Three Years' War (1089-1091) in;
(O-shu) part of 0-U, 388; peaceful under Kamakura rule; revolt of
1413 in; in 16th century wars; silk growing; famine of 1783-6 in

--branch of Fujiwara, descendants of Fujiwara Kiyohira; give
Yoshitsune asylum; crushed by Yoritomo (1189)

Mutsuhito, (posthumous name, Meiji), 122nd Emperor (1867-1912); seal

Myochin Nobuiye, metalworker and armourer

Myocho, Zen priest

Myoe (or Koben), bonze, quotation from his biography on Yasutoki

Myogaku-ji, temple

Myong see Song Wang Myong

Myoo, priest

Myoshin-ji, Zen temple, W. of Kyoto

Myosho, (109th) Empress (1629-43), Princess Oki, daughter of
Go-mizu-no-o and Tokugawa consort

Mythology; rationalistic explanation of, by Japanese

Nabeshima Naoshige (1537-1619), invasion of Korea

Nagahama, Omi, headquarters of Hideyoshi

Nagakude, battle of

Nagamasa see Asai Nagatnasa and Asano Nagamasa

Nagamori see Masuda Nagamori

Nagao Kagetora see Uesugi Kenshin

Nagaoka, Yamashiro, capital

--uji, of princely descent

Nagasaki, port; church, trade, growth; Jesuit church seized by
Francisans; missionaries receive patent; Martyrs' Mount; execution of
De l'Assumption and Machado; "Great Martyrdom"; trade; Pessoa at;
Dutch and English confined to; Dutch factory; Russians come to
(1804); Glynn and the Preble; Americans allowed to trade; military
college at

--Enki, guardian of Hojo Takatoki

--Takashige, suicide, 386

--Takasuke (d.1333), minister of Takatoki; dethrones Go-Daigo

Nagashino, castle

Nagasune, governor of Yamato

Nagato, fortifications at, (1280)

Nagatoshi, name given to Nawa Nagataka

Nagauji see Hojo Soun

Nagaya (684-729), minister of the Left

Nagoya, in Hizen, base of operations against Korea; castle of

Nai-mul, king of Shiragi (364), first sends tribute to Yamato

Naka, Prince, son of Kogyoku; passed over, in succession;
interregnum; Great Reform; expedition to Korea; Emperor Tenchi

Nakachiko, Oshiwa's servant

Nakahara family, scholars, secretaries in Bakufu; in Ashikaga
administration; lecturers

--Chikayoshi (1142-1207) in Yoritomo's Bakufu; nominated; high
constable at Court, but not appointed; in Bakufu council; ancestor of
Otomo family of Kyushu

--Kaneto, rears Yoshinaka; his four sons, Yoshinaka's guards

Nakai Seishi establishes school in Osaka

Xakamaro see Abe Nakamoro and Fujiwara Nakamaro

Nakamura Hiyoshi see Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Nakane Genkei, mathematician, translates Gregorian calendar into

Nakanomikado, 114th Emperor (1710-35)

Nakano, suburb of Yedo, dog-kennel in

Naka-Nushi, "Central Master"

Nakasendo, Central Mountain road, completed early in 8th century

Nakashi, wife of Okusaka

Nakatomi family, court priests; descended from Koyane; guardians of 3
insignia, and of Shinto ceremonials; oppose Buddhism, and Soga

--Kamako, muraji, opposes Buddhism

--Kamatari see Fujiwara Kamatari

--Kane, muraji, minister, in conspiracy against Oama (Temmu)

--Katsumi, muraji, killed (587 A.D.)

Nakatsu, Prince

Nakaye Toju (1608-48), Confucianist, follower of Wang Yang-ming

Namamugi incident

Nambu family

--Saemon opposes Ieyasu

Names and naming, Japanese system; territorial

Naniwa, now Osaka, capital of Emperor Nintoku; Buddhist temple,
(579); immigrants from Kudara; administration, Settsu-shoku, under
Daiho; removal of capital to, by Kotoku; trade in Heian epoch

Nanko, see Kusunoki Masashige

Nankwa (16th Cent.), scholar

Na-no-Agata or Watazumi-no-Kuni, Japanese intercourse with

Naiishan, commanding Port Arthur

Nanzen-ji, Zen temple, 454; one of the "Five"

Nara, Yamato province, removal of capital to (709 A.D.); the Nara
epoch (709-84); the Nara image of Buddha; city officials, revenues
from public lands appropriated for, 775 A.D.; Kusu and Fujiwara
Nakanari attempt to make it capital again; power of armed monks
controlled by Yoshinori; rebel against Yoshimasa; Takauji tries to

Nariaki see Tokugawa Nariaki

Narimasa see Sasa Narimasa

Narinaga, Prince (1325-38), kwanryo of Kwanto; shogun at Kamakura

Narita Kosaburo assists Go-Daigo

Nariyuki see Tokugawa Nariyuki

Nasu family, one of "8 Generals of Kwanto"

"National Histories, Six" covering years 697-887 A.D.; five composed
in Heian epoch

Nature Worship

Navarrete, Alonso (1617), Spanish Dominican, executed by Omura

Navigation; see Ships

Navy, Japanese, in Mongol invasion; in invasion of Korea; naval
College, Gunkan Kyojujo, at Tsukiji; modern organization; in war with
China; in war with Russia

Nawa, adherents of Southern Court, in Sanin-do

Nagatoshi (d. 1336), helps Go-Daigo escape; provincial governor;
commands against the Ashikaga; death

Nazuka Masaiye, in charge of land-survey

Needle, magic, as cure

Negoro, in Kii, firearms made at; headquarters of priests of Kii

Nei-issan see Ichinei

Nemuro, Russian ship in (1792)

Nengo, era or period, in chronology; different names in Northern and
Southern courts

Nenoi Yukichika, one of Yoshinaka's four guards

Ne no Omi, messenger of Anko

Neo support Southern Court in Mino

Neolithic culture

Nestorian Christianity in China

Netsuke, (ill.)

New Spain, Mexico, ships from

New Year's celebration

Ng, Chinese writer on war (3d Cent, A.D.)

Nichira, Japanese at Kudara Court advises Bidatsu against Kudara

Nichiren, Buddhist sect dating from 13th century; its founder; war
with other monks

Nigihayahi, uncle of Jimmu, overlord of Nagasune

Nihon Bummei Shiryaku, on early medicine

Nihon Kodaiho Shakugi, on Board of Religion

Nihon Koki, Later Chronicles of Japan (792-833)

Nihongi, Chronicle of Japan (720); on Chuai and Jingo; after 400 A.D.

Nihonmatsu family

Nihon Shoki, Written Chronicles of Japan to 697 A.D. (720), revision
of; continuations

Nijo, family founded by son of Fujiwara Michiiye, one of "Five Regent

Nijo, 78th Emperor (1159-66)

Castle, Kyoto, destroyed; officials of

Michihira (1287-1335), Go-Daigo's minister

Yoshimoto (1320-88), scholar and author

Nikaido in office of shitsuji; defeated by Date

Sadafusa opposes the regent (1331)

Nikki favour Takauji

Nikko, Shimotsuke province, shrine of Ieyasu and tombs in; annual
worship at

Nikolaievsk, strategic situation

Nimmyo, Emperor (834-50); chronicle of his reign; luxury

Nine Years' Commotion, Zenkunen (1056-64)

Ningpo, trade with Japan; sacked by Japanese

Ninigi see Hikoho Ninigi

Ninken, 24th Emperor (488-98), Prince Woke

Ninko, 120th Emperor (1817-46)

Nintoku, 16th Emperor (313-99); 7 provinces added by; consort,
Takenouchi's granddaughter; love story; remits taxes

Nippon, "Sunrise Place"

Nira-yama, Hojo castle

Nishi Hongwan-ji, temple

Nishikawa Masayasu, astronomer under Yoshimune

Nishina-uji, branch of Taira family

Nishina Morito (d. 1221), Bakufu retainer, in Shokyu war

Nishino Buntaro, assassin (1889) of Viscount Mori

Nisi-no-shima, islet in Oki group

Nitta family, Yoritomo's attempt to win; adherents of Southern Court;
crushed by Ashikaga Ujimitsu

--Yoshiaki (d. 1338), son of Yoshisada and provincial governor;

--Yoshimune (1332-68), in defeat of Takauji

--Yoshioki (d. 1358)

--Yoshisada (1301-38) in Kyoto revolt; declares against Hojo, takes
Kamakura; provincial governor; accuses Takauji of treason; commands
army against Takauji; besieges Shirahata; escapes; faithful to
Go-Daigo; death

--Yoshishige (d. 1202), ancestor of Tokugawa

Nittabe, Prince, residence of, site of Shodai-ji temple

Niuchwang taken by Japanese (1894)

Niwa Nagahide (1535-85), soldier of Nobunaga; councillor

No, dance and drama; Sadanobu regulates costume; masks

No-ami, artist, patronized by Yoshimasa

Nobility, primitive; administrative; growth of power at expense of
Emperor; Daika attempts to distinguish from official ranks; titles of
hereditary aristocracy annulled by Daika and estates escheated;
nobles state pensioners; new titles under Temmu; influence of
hereditary nobles against Daiho laws; court society in Heian epoch;
in Meiji era; see Court Houses, Military Houses

Nobukatsu see Oda Nobukatsu

Nobunaga see Oda Nobunaga

Nobuteru see Ikeda Nobuteru

Nobuyoshi see Tokugawa Nobuyoshi

Nogi, Kiten, Count (1849-1912), commanding 3d Army, at Dalny;
receives surrender of Port Arthur; at Mukden

Nomi-no-Sukune, suggests clay effigies instead of human funeral
sacrifices; wrestler; ancestor of Sugawara family

No-niwa, moor-garden

Norimura see Akamatsu Norimura

Nori Sachhi see Tori Shichi

Norito, ancient rituals

Northeastern Japan, political importance of

North-east gate, the Demon's gate

Northern and Southern Dynasties; table; Northern in control

Northern Japan, more primitive culture of

Novik, Russian 2d-class cruiser at Port Arthur

Nozu, Michitsura, Count (1840-1908), commanding 4th Army; at Mukden

Nuns, Buddhist, Imperial princesses become

Nurses, provided for the Court by Mibu

Oama, younger brother of Naka (Emperor Tenchi), administrator during
7-year interregnum (661-668); appointed Tenchi's successor, declines
in face of conspiracy; becomes Emperor Temmu

Oba Kagechika (d. 1182), hems in Yoritomo and crushes his army

Oban, coin

Obi, in Hyuga, Chinese trade

Occupations, hereditary among prehistoric uji or families

Oda family, one of "8 Generals of Kwanto"; origin of family

--Hidenobu (1581-1602), grandson of Nobunaga

--Katsunaga (1568-82), death

--Nobuhide (d. 1549) aids Crown

--Nobukatsu, son of Nobunaga, in Ise; succession; Komaki war; peace
with Hideyoshi; Hideyoshi's treatment; signs oath of loyalty

--Nobunaga (1534-82); seizes Ise; career; Hideyoshi serves under; wins
Okehazama; alliance with Ieyasu and Shingen; Court appeals to;
attitude toward Yoshiaki; practically shogun; makes peace; friendly
to Christians; aids Ieyasu; death; character; currency reform

--Nobutada (1557-82), with Ieyasu destroys army of Takeda Katsuyori;
death; succession

--Nobutaka (1558-83)

--Samboshi called Hidenobu (1581-1602), son of Nobutada, his successor

Odate, governor of Harima, and Oke and Woke

Odate Muneuji, killed in attack on Kamakura

Odawara, fortress of Hojo; Odawara-hyogi proverb of reluctance;
attacked by Kenshin; surrenders (1590)

Oeyama Shutendoji, bandit

Office and official called by same name; and rank, family
qualifications for, before Heiji commotion

Official or Court lands, kwanden, under Daiho laws

--rank and aristocratic titles distinguished by the Daika

--rules (kyaku) supplementing Yoro laws

Oga, eighth of the great uji, descended from Okuninushi

Ogawa, at Sekigahara

Ogigayatsu, family name taken by Uesugi Tomomune; feud with
Yamanouchi; against Hojo

Ogimaru see Hashiba Hidekatsu

Oguchi, battle of, Hideyoshi defeats Shimazu Iehisa

Ogura, Mount, home of Fujiwara Sadaiye

Ogyu (or Butsu) Sorai (1666-1728), Confucianist, writes on "47
Ronin", and on government; revises code

Ohama, nobleman, placates fishermen

Ohatsuse, brother of Anko; apparently instigates murder of all
between him and crown; succeeds as Yuryaku

Oiratsume, incestuous sister of Karu

Oishi Yoshiyo (1659-1703), leader of "47 Ronin" (1703)

Oiwa, general in Korea, tries to get throne of Kudara

Ojin, 15th Emperor (270-310); 21 provinces added in his reign; ship
building; palanquin

Okabe Tadazumi kills Taira Tadanori at Ichi-no-tani

Okagami, historical work

Oka-yama, castle in Bizen

Okazaki, in Mikawa, Ieyasu's castle in

Okazaki Masamune (1264-1344), swordsmith of Kamakura

Oke, Prince, see Kenso

Okehazama, battle (1560) victory of Nobunaga

Oki, Princess, see Myosho

Okimachi, 106th Emperor (1557-86); honours Kenshin, summons Nobunaga
to Kyoto; Hideyoshi; decrees against Christianity

Okisada, see Sanjo

Okitsugu, see Tanuma Okitsugu

Okiyo, Prince, governor of Musashi

Okoshi, see Mononobe Okoshi

Oku Hokyo, Count (b. 1844) commanding 2d Army wins battle of Kinchou;
and of Telissu; at Mukden

Okubo family, guards of Hakone barrier

--Tadachika (1553-1628) punished for disobedience to Military Law

--Toshimitsu (1832-78) of Satsuma, in alliance with Choshu; and Korean
question; assassinated

Okuma Shigenobu, Count (b. 1838); organizes Progressist party; attack
upon, retirement; invited into Cabinet

Okuni-nushi, Kami, "Great Name Possessor"; ancestor of Oga-uji

Okura-no-Tsubone, Yodo's lady-in-waiting

Okusaka, uncle of Anko, accused of treason; Okusakabe formed in his

Okuyama Yasushige (d. 1651)

Omi, muraji, befriends Oke and Woke

Omi, "grandee", title, applied to chiefs of conquest, and to subjects
holding court office; higher than muraji; inferior title in Temmu's

Omi, immigrants from Kudara settle in; seat of court and place of
issue of Omi statutes; capital moved to; Asai control; Buddhists help
Asai in; rice grants

Omitsu, son of Susanoo, imports cotton from Korea

Omiwa, Kami of

Omura, fief in Hizen, represented in embassy to Europe of 1582

--Sumitada (1532-87) invites Jesuits to Omura in Hizen; a Christian,

Omura Sumiyori (d. 1619), persecutes Christians

O-muraji, head of o-uji or preeminent grandee; office held by Otomo
and then Mononobe; political rivalry with o-omi; opposing Buddhism;
property of, unimportant after the Daika; not in Temmu's scheme of

Onakatsu, consort of Inkyo

Onchi, or Yenchi, uplands, distinguished from irrigated rice land in
Daiho code

Ondo no Seto, strait near Kobe

Onin, period, 1467-9, its records; civil war of; beginning of Sengoku

Onjo-ji, in Omi, temple of Jimon branch, of Tendai sect, built by
Otomo Suguri; its armed men; its abbot Raigo; part played by
monastery in Yorimasa conspiracy; burnt by Taira (1180)

Ono Tofu, scribe

Ono Azumahito (d. 742), lord of eastern marches, builds castle of

--Harunaga (d. 1615), son of Yodo's nurse, adviser of Hideyori; plots
against Katagiri and Tokugawa; advises surrender of Osaka

--Imoko, Japanese envoy to China (607 A.D.)

--Yasumaro (d. 723), scribe; preface to Ko-jiki

--Yoshifuru, general of guards, crushes revolt of Fujiwara Sumitomo

Onogoro, mythic island in story of cosmogony

Ooka Tadasuke (1677-1751), chief-justice in Yedo; revises code

O-oku, harem

O-omi, pre-eminent ami, head of Kwobetsu-uji; rivalry with o-muraji;
favour Buddhism; pre-eminent after death of Mononobe Moriya; title
given by Soga Emishi to his sons; no longer important after Daika

Operative regulations, Shiki, supplementing Yoro laws

Oracle, of Sun Goddess at Ise; War God at Usa

Orange (tachibana) seeds brought from China (61 A.D.); trees

Ordeal; of fire; of boiling water, kugadachi; used in Korea by Keno;
in questions of lineage

Organtino (1530-1609), Jesuit, Hideyoshi's treatment

Orloff, Russian general, ambuscaded at Liaoyang

Orpheus-Eurydice legend, Japanese parallel

Osabe, Prince Imperial, son of Konin, poisoned (772)

Osada Tadamune and his son Kagemune kill Minamoto Yoshitomo

Osadame Hyakkajo, Hundred Articles of Law

Osafune, swordsmith

Osaka, campaign from, against Sujin; Hideyoshi's castle; Chinese
envoys; Franciscan convent; missionaries' residence; castle attacked;
taken by Ishida; party of, refuse oath of loyalty to Tokugawa; castle
partly destroyed; taken; vendetta illegal in; Nakai Seishi's school;
rice exchange; jodai; traders crush English and Dutch competition;
opened by Hyogo demonstration (1866)

Osaragi Sadanao, Hojo general, suicide (1333)

Osawa family, masters of ceremonies

Osazaki, life name of Emperor Nintoku

Oshihi, ancestor of Otomo chiefs

Oshikatsu, Rebellion of

Oshioki Ojomoku, code

Oshio Heihachiro (1792-1837) leads revolt after famine of 1836-7

Oshiwa, son of Richu, killed by Yuryaku

Oshiyama, governor of Mimana, recommends cession of part of Mimana to
Kudara; territorial dispute of

Oshu, or Mutsu subjugated (1189); revolt of Ando

Ota Sukekiyo (1411-93), builds fort at Iwatsuki

Dokwan or Sukenaga (1432-86), builds fort at Yedo; aids Ogigayatsu
branch of Uesugi

Otani, Nagamasa's castle

Oto, sister of Onakatsu, concubine of Inkyo

Oto, son of Tasa

Oto Miya see Morinaga

Otoko-yama, surrendered

Otomo family, descent; gate-guards; in Kyushu; treatment of Xavier in
Bungo; feudatory and son Christians; persecute Buddhists

--general, defeats Iwaki and Hoshikawa

--Prince, prime-minister (671); conspiracy against Oama, succession as

--Chikayo, tandai of Kyushu (1396)

--Satehiko, in Korea (562)

--Yakamochi (d. 785), anthology

--Yoshishige, called Sorin, (1530-87), in wars in Kyushu; defeated in
Hizen, appeals to Hideyoshi

Otsu, port

Otsu, Prince, son of Temmu; rebels against Jito and is killed

Otsuki Heiji advocates foreign intercourse

O-U, O-shu (Mutsu) and U-shu (Dewa); in 16th century wars

Ouchi family of Suwo, and the revolt of 1399; conspires in behalf of
Hosokawa Yoshitane; tandai; in charge of relations with Korea, and
China; quarrel with Shogun; superintend pirates; scholarship; gifts
to Throne; power in 16th century, taken over by Mori Motonari

--Masahiro, pirate leader

--Mochiyo (1395-1442)

--Yoshihiro (1355-1400), Muromachi general, negotiates with Southern
Court; slanders Imagawa Ryoshun; suicide

--Yoshinaga (d. 1557)

--Yoshioki (1477-1528), deputy kwanryo to Hosokawa Yoshitane; removes
to Suwo

--Yoshitaka (1507-51), re-establishes (1548) trade with China; Chinese
literature; defeated by Suye Harukata

Owari, province, Nobunaga in; fighting in Komaki war; Tokugawa of

Oyama, Iwao, Prince (b.1842), at Mukden

Oyamada Takaiye, sacrifice saves Nitta Yoshisada

Oye family could hold office above 5th rank; scholars; in Ashikaga

--Hiramoto (1148-1225), first president of man-dokoro; reforms (1185);
sent to Kyoto after earthquake of 1185; in council of Bakufu;
remonstrates with Sanetomo; urges offensive at beginning of Shokyu
struggle; death

--Masafusa, general in Nine Years' Commotion; attempt to placate Raigo

--Tomotsuna, litterateur

O Yo-mei see Wang Yang-ming

Paddy-loom, introduction

Pagoda, 7-storey; 13-storey; many built by Shirakawa

Pahan-Hachiman, of pirate ships

Paikche, or Kudara, near Seoul, Japanese alliance with; artisans from

Paik-chhon-ku (Ung-jin), Japanese and Kudara army defeated by Chinese

Painting, Chinese, in Japan; and Korean; in years 540-640; in Nara
epoch; in Heian epoch; in Kamakura period; in Muromachi period

Palace, ancient; consecration; in Nintoku's reign; Asuka; temporary,
in burial; Kyoto palace burned and rebuilt; guards; officials;
Yoshimitsu's; Yoshimasa's; Hideyoshi's

Palanquin, koshi, of 3rd century; one-pole, kago; legislation about;
luxurious use of, in Genroku period


Palisades, early defence

Pattada, Russian cruiser at Port Arthur

Paper currency

Parkes, Sir Harry (1828-85), and Hyogo demonstration

Parks in Heian epoch in Kyoto; in Kamakura period; in Muromachi; see
Landscape gardening

Parties, political, personal character of; opposition to cabinet;
union of Liberals and Progressists

Partitions in houses

Parturition hut, ubuya

Paulownia, Imperial badge

Pavilion, Golden, of Yoshimitsu; Silver of Yoshimasa

Pawnshops, heavy taxes on

Peaches in myth of Izanagi and Izanami; Chinese origin of story

Peach Hill, Momoyama, Hideyoshi's palace

"Peerage," Japanese, Seishi-roku (814 A.D.)

Pehchili, in Boxer Rebellion

Peking, Japanese in march to, during Boxer Rebellion

Penal law and penalties, ancient; proto-historic; ritsu of Daiho and
Yoro; in Joei code; in Tokugawa period

Perry, Matthew C. (1794-1858), Commodore, U.S.N., and treaty with

Persecution of Buddhists, by Christians, influence Hideyoshi; of
Jesuits after edict of 1587; of Franciscans; of Dominicans (1622); of
Japanese Christians (1613); (1616), (1622), in Iemitsu's time

Perseus-Andromeda story, Japanese parallel

Pescadores, ceded by China (1895)

Pessoa, Andrea, blows up his ship at Nagasaki

Pestilence in reign of Sujin; in 1182; in 1783-6; displeasure of gods
at adoption of Buddhism

Petition-box (meyasu-bako) and right of petition (645 A.D.); abuse
of, pointed out in Miyoshi no Kiyotsura; petition bell in Kamakura;
boxes re-introduced

Petropavlovsk, Russian battle-ship, sunk

Pets, cats and dogs

Pheasant in myth of Heavenly Young Prince

--White, Hakurchi, nengo or year-period, 650-4 A.D.

Philippine Islands, promised to Hideyoshi by Franciscans; Ieyasu's
embassies to; conquest of, urged by Cocks, and by Matsukura and
Takenaka; Japanese forbidden to visit; governor-general of, in Japan

Phung-chang, prince of Kudara

Physical characteristics of Japanese

Piece, 40 ft., unit of cloth measure

Pine-bark for food

Pine trees in Yedo castle

Pirates in Shikoku, Fujiwara Sumitomo sent against; Japanese piracy
in Muromachi epoch; and invasion of Korea

Pit-dwellers see Tsuchi-gumo

Pitszewo, landing-place of 2d Japanese army (1904)

Plum tree groves, 612; blossom festival

Poetry; Nara epoch; Heian; Chinese style; in battle; in Genroku era;
bureau of; quoted; see Couplet Composing

Pohai, Korean kingdom of 8th century recognized by Japan as successor
of Koma

Pok-ein, Kudara general, defeats Shiragi troops (660)

Police, doshin

--Board, Danjo-dai, duties taken over by kebiishi

--executive, kebiishi, (810-29)

Poltava, Russian cruiser at Port Arthur

Polygamy in early Japan

Polytheism of early Buddhism

Pontiff, ho-o, title taken by abdicating Emperor


Port Arthur, taken from Chinese (1894); Russian railway; Russian
fleet at, crippled by Japanese; Japanese attack on, was it
warranted?; fleet further crippled; harbour entrance blocked;
movements toward; captured (end of 1904)

Portsmouth, Peace of, (text)

Portuguese in Japan; introduce fire-arms; Spanish jealousy of; Dutch
and English intrigue against; instigate Christian revolt; edict of
1637 against; refuse grant in Yedo; monopolize early trade; end of

Post bells, suzu

Posthumous names; official rank first conferred

Posting stations

Potato, sweet, introduced

Powder, in costume

Prayer, magic, etc.

Preble, American brig, in Nagasaki (1847)

Prefectural government as opposed to feudal; prefecture or ken

Prices, official, (1735)

Priesthood, Buddhist, attempt to bring under law; armed priests;
princes enter, except Crown Prince; temporal power; scholarship

--Catholic, Ieyasu's attitude; and see Jesuits, Franciscans,
Dominicans, Augustins

--Shinto, early rules

Prime Minister, 85, development of political power; office first
established (671)

Primogeniture in early times, Imperial; in the family; Imperial,
established 696 A.D.

Princely Houses

Princes, Imperial, change of status in Nara epoch; many become
priests in Ashikaga epoch; abbots of Enryaku-ji and Kwanei-ji; all
but Crown Prince enter priesthood; prince abbots, or monzeki

Printing, Buddhist amulets (770); in China; from movable type, about


Privy council, Daijo (dajo) kwan; Board of

Progressist party, Shimpo-to, organized (1881) by Okuma; joins with

Promotion, official, Chinese system introduced (603 A.D.); under

Prose of Nara epoch; of Engi era wholly in Chinese; Ki no Tsurayuki's
preface to Kokin-shu

Prosody, Japanese; and see Poetry, Couplet

Prostitution in Yedo; Sadanobu's legislation

Provinces, kuni, in reign of Seimu; classification, and subdivision
into kori, under Daiho; difference between capital and provinces in
Heian epoch; lawlessness; power of provincial families; Bushi
employed by provincial nobles; shugo system, abolished by Kemmu
restoration; local autonomy abolished

Provincial rulers, in early times; administration by imperial
princes; early kuni-no-miyatsuko, later kokushi; kokushi under Daika;
abuses under Shomu and Koken; use forced labour to reclaim uplands;
term reduced to 5 years (774); administration criticized by Miyoshi
no Kiyotsura; administration after Onin war; in Muromachi period; and

--temples, kokubun-ji; expense

--troops, abolished (792) except on frontiers

Public land, Kugaiden

Purchase value of money

Purification, Great, Oharai; regular, harai; bodily, misogi; as
punishment for persons of high rank

Purple court costume; ecclesiastical robes

Pyong-yang, Korea; in campaign of 1592; taken from Japanese by
Chinese (1593); Chinese defeated at, (1894)

Queen's Country, Chinese name for Kyushu and west-coast provinces
because of female rulers

Queue--wearing and official caps, (603)


Race of Japanese

Raconteurs or reciters, guild of, Kataribe, (ill)

Raigo, abbot, influence

Rai Miki (1825-59), in Imperial restoration movement

Rai Sanyo (1780-1832) on ethical effects of Chinese classics; on
Mintoku; on Bakufu; on the Hojo; on Morinaga; on Yoshisada; on
development of tactics

Railways, Englishmen employed in planning; modern building

Rakuo, pen-name of Matsudaira Sadanobu

Rank, hon-i; changed by Taira Kiyomori after Heiji commotion; and

Ransetsu, verse-writer

Ratio of copper and silver in coinage; of silver and gold

Reclamation, of upland, in 8th century; and perpetual title; in
Yoshimune's time

Recluse Emperors, Three; and see Camera Government

Recorder, of judgments

Recorders, Court of

Records, early Japanese; local

Red court costume, mark of highest rank; colour of Taira ensign

Red Monk, name given to Yamana Mochitoyo

Red walls

Reed, source of terrestrial life; boat in Japanese myth

Reform, Great (645)

Regent for grown Emperor, mayor of palace, kwampaku, office abolished
after Kemmu restoration, in Tokugawa period; to minor, sessho;
military, shikken

Regent Houses, Five, Go-Sekke

Registrar of Vessels

Registration of land

Reigen, 112th Emperor (1663-86); abdicates

Rein, J. J., on chronology

Reizei, 63rd Emperor (968-969), grandson of Fujiwara no Morosuke

Relief in crop-failure or sickness, under Daiho laws; for debtors;
for sufferers from fire and tornado; for famine

Religion, early rites; rites reorganized; Emperor at head of; in
protohistoric period; Board of; Miyoshi Kiyotsura's description;
Yoritomo's attitude; in Muromachi period; Department of; and see
Mythology, Shinto, Buddhism, Christianity

Ren, lady of Go-Daigo, conspires against Morinaga, for her son

Rennyo Shonin see Kenju

Restoration, of Kemmu era; of 1867

Return, English ship

Retvisan, Russian battleship at Port Arthur

Rhinoceros, fossil

Rice, castle; diet; culture; chewers, nurses; corporation of
cultivators; for public use; standard of exchange; store-houses, for
sale to travelers; loaned to farmers; substitute crops urged; boiled
and dried, ration; paddy-loom; area cultivated, 15th century,
beginning of 16th century; currency; relief tax on feudatories;
production increased; rice exchange; classification of fields; modern

Richardson, English subject, killed in Namamugi

"Rich Gem," Princess, in myth of Hosuseri and Hohodemi

Richu, 17th Emperor (400-405 A.D.), first of "protohistoric"

Right, Minister of

Rikken Seiyukai, "Friends of the Constitution"

Riparian improvements under Nintoku

Rituals, Ancient

River of Heaven, Milky Way

Rock, Sacred, on Kannabi mountains

Rodriguez, Joao (1559-1633), Portuguese Jesuit, interpreter at Yedo

Roju, seniors, cabinet; council of ministers, removed from proximity
to shogun; and tax collecting; judges

Rokkaku, one of Five Regent Houses; Yoshihisa's campaign against

--Sadayori, see Sasaki Sadayori

--Takayori, see Sasaki Takayori

Rokuhara, n. and s. suburbs of Kyoto, offices of the Bakufu tandai;
in Kyoto revolt

Rokujo, 79th Emperor (1166-1168)

Roku Kokushi, Six National Histories

Rokuon-ji, family temple of Yoshimitsu

Roku-sho-ji, Six Temples built by Shirakawa

Roman Empire, early trade with China

Ronin, free lances; revolt of; "47"


Rope, straw, in myth; paper-mulberry, used in fishing

Rosen, Roman Romanovitch, Baron, Russian peace commissioner at

Rossia, Russian cruiser at Vladivostok

Rouge, in costume

Rozhdestvensky, Ziniry Petrovitch (b. 1848), commanding Baltic
squadron, defeated by Togo

Rules for Decisions; of Judicial Procedure

--and Regulations of Three Generations, Saridai-Kyaku-shiki; revised

Rurik, Russian cruiser

Russia, relations with, 18th and early 19th centuries; joins France
and Germany in note protesting against Japanese occupation of
Manchurian littoral; war with; peace, (text); situation in 1911

Russian, name Akuro-o may be read Oro-o and mean

Ryobu Shinto, mixed Shinto, Kami being avatars of Buddhas

Ryogoku, bridge in Yedo

Ryoken, priest of Nanzen-ji

Ryoshun see Imagawa Sadayo

Ryu, Shinki, artist

Ryuko, Buddhist priest, advises of Tsunayoshi

Ryokyu Islands, language cognate to Japanese; King of, intervenes;
Japanese intercourse with islands; king of, and Japanese invasion of
mainland; French in, (1846); Formosa and; Chinese claims to, given up

Ryuzoki, Kyushu family, defeat Shoni

--Takanobu (1530-85), death

Sacrifice, early; human; of weapons; at grave

Sadami, Prince, Emperor Uda (q.v.)

Sadanobu see Matsudaira Sadanobu

Sadato see Abe Sadato

Sadatoki see Hojo Sadatoki

Sadatsune, Prince, sons

Sadayori see Sasaki Sadayori

Sado, island, in early myth; settlement; silver mines; penal

Sado Maru, Japanese transport sunk by Vladivostok squadron

Saegusa Moriyoshi (d. 1651)

Saeki family, member of, made state councillor

Saga, 52nd Emperor (810-23); as calligrapher; his children and the

Genji, branch of Minamoto

Sagami province conquered by Hojo Soun; Hojo and Uesugi; tobacco in

Sagara (Sawara) Crown Prince under Kwammu

Saghalien, Russians in (18th century); Russian and Japanese claims
in; Russian title recognized (1875); Japan's claim to, after war with
Russia; not to be fortified

Saho plots against Suinin

Saicho, posthumously Dengyo Daishi, 805 A.D. introduces Buddhist
Tendai, (ill.)

Saigo Takamori or Kichinosuke (1827-77), leader in anti-foreign
movement; in alliance with Choshu; urges war with Korea and resigns
from cabinet (1873); in Satsuma rebellion, (ill.)

Saigyo Hoshi (1118-90), poet and ascetic

Saiko, bonze

Saikyo, western capital

Saimei, Empress (655-61), the Empress Kogyoku succeeds Kotoku;
Yemishi at coronation

Saimyo-ji, Zen temple

Saionji in Kawachi

--Kimmochi, Marquis (b. 1849), head of Constitutionist (Liberal) party

Sairan Igen, book by Arai Hakusekai

Saito family in Ise defeated by Oda; feud in Mino; helped by Buddhist


--Tatsuoki, defeated by Nobunaga; leads revolt in Settsu

--Yoshitatsu (1527-61), son of Hidetatsu, kills him

Sajima, Prince, (d. 125 A.D.)

Sakai, near Osaka, Ouchi Yoshihiro's castle at; China trade;
Nobunaga's quarrel with; firearms made at; port

--family, Bakufu ministers from; tamarizume

--Tadakatsu, minister of Tokugawa

--Tadakiyo (1626-81) takes over most of Shogun's power; succession to
Go-Mizu-no-o; succession to Ietsuna; displaced

--Tadayo, minister under Hidetada

Sakaibe Marise, uncle of Emishi

Sakamoto, castle at

Saka-no-ye Tamuramaro (758-811), against Yemishi; aids Saga

--Karitamuro (728-86), chief of palace guards

Sake, manufacture of, taught by Sukuna; dealers taxed

Sakitsuya, killed for lese-majeste (463 A.D.)

Sakugen, priest

Sakuma Morimasa (1554-83), defeated

--Nobumori (d. 1582), soldier of Nobunaga

Sakura-jima, eruption

Sakuramachi, 115th Emperor (1735-47)

Sakurayama, adherents of Southern Court

--Koretoshi, commands force loyal to Go-Daigo

Salaries, official

Salt, use of, in early Japan

Sanbo-in, temple

Samisen, 3-stringed guitar

Samurai, soldier class, freelances; attitude of, toward foreigners;
place of, in making New Japan; attitude of Crown to; abolition of;
Satsuma rebellion

Samurai-dokoro, Central Staff Office, (1180) in Yoritomo's Bakufu
system; in administration of Kyoto after Shokyu war; in Muromachi

Sanada Masayuki (1544-1608), accused of encroachment; blocks Tokugawa
Hidetada's army

--Yukimura (1570-1615), in defence of Osaka castle

Sandai Jitsu-roku, True Annals of Three Reigns, (901)

Sandai-Kyaku-shiki, Rules and Regulations of Three Generations

Sanetomo see Minamoto Sanetomo

San Felipe, Spanish galleon, wrecked in Tosa

Sanjo, 67th Emperor (1012-16)

Sanetomi, Prince (1837-91), leader of extremist party; in alliance of
Choshu and Satsuma, (ill.)

Sanjonishi Sanetaka, scholar

Sankyo-ron, Shotoku quoted in, on management of state

Sano, branch of Fujiwara

Sano Masakoto attempts to assassinate Tanuma Okitsugu

Sanron, Buddhist sect

Santa-Martha, Juan de, Spanish Franciscan, executed (1618)

Sanuki, province

Sapan wood, trade

Sarcophagus, stone, clay, and terra cotta, of Yamato

Saris, John, agent of East India Company, settles at Hirado

Sarume, "monkey female" dances before cave of Sun goddess

Sasa Narimasa (1539-88), in Komaki war

Sasaki family, branch of the Minamoto; favour Takauji

--Mochikiyo, estates of

--(Rokkaku) Sadayori (d. 1552) captures Kyoto; reconciles hostile
parties; generosity to Crown

--Shotei general in forces against Nobunaga

--Takayori (d. 1520), great estates; campaign against

Sasebo, Japanese sally from, on Port Arthur

Sashihire, Hayato assassin (399) of Nakatsu; death

Sassulitch, Russian general, on Yalu

Satake family, Yoritomo's attempt to win; one of "8 Generals of
Kwanto"; of Hitachi, allies of Shingen

--Yoshinobu (1570-1633), opposes Ieyasu, taking army over to Ishida;
fief reduced (1600)

Satehiko see Otomo Satehiko

Sato Tadanobu, impersonates Yoshitsune


Satomi family, one of "8 Generals of Kwanto"; fight Hojo; defeated;
allies of Shingen

Satow, Sir Ernest, sceptical of dates in "Chronicles"; on revival of

Satsuma, Xavier in; later preaching; foreign ships in, menace
Tokugawa; trade; tobacco; bonita; moderate party; against Tokugawa;
predominant; fiefs surrendered; clan representation; rebellion of

Sawaga, monastery

Sawing to death

Scholars, Chinese and Korean, in Japan; sophists; in Bakufu; in
Ashikaga system; literati at Court; Japanese sent to Europe and

Scholarship recommended in Court Laws; Ieyasu's attitude to; revival
of learning; Tsunayoshi favours Chinese scholarship; Western

"Scrutator," nairan, Bakufu official at court

Sculpture in Nara epoch; in Heian; Kamakura period

Sea-Dragon, Castle of, myth

Sea, Command of, in 1592 campaign

Seals; of Taiko; (ill.)

Seal skins in early myth

Seaweed as food

Sebastian, Spanish sailor, undertakes coast survey

Secretaries in Bakufu

Seed distribution by Crown (723)

Seidan, book on government by Ogyu Sorai

Seido, or Shohei college

Sei-i, "barbarian expelling," title of shogun; sei-i tai-shogun,
hereditary title

Seikan, priest

Seimu, 13th Emperor (131-190 A.D.)

Seinei, 22nd Emperor, (480-4)

Seishi-roku, record of nobles (814 A.D.)

Sei Shonagon, poetess

Seiwa, 56th Emperor (859-76); (ill.); sons become Minamoto

Seiwa Genji, branch of Minamoto

Sekigahara, battle of (1600)

Sen, Japanese coin

Senate, Genro-in, organized (1875)

Sengoku Hidehisa (1551-1614) soldier of Hideyoshi

Senkwa, 28th Emperor (536-9), succeeds his brother Ankan

Seoul, Korea; march upon (1592), Japanese forced to give up; Chinese
resident in, blocks Japanese control; foreign legations removed,
Japanese resident-general in

Sepulchres of Yamato; contents

Serpent, eight-forked killed by Susanoo; possibly the name of a local
chief; early shrine; worship

Sesshu (1420-1506), painter of Kamakura school; academy

Seta, Long Bridge of

Settsu Dojun, suicide

Settsu, Buddhist temple in; Kiyomori moves capital to Fukuhara in;
priests revolt

Seven Generals plot against Ishida

Sexagenary Cycle in Japanese chronology; accounts for error of 120
years; Chinese origin of

Shaho, battle of

Shaka, Sakiya Muni

Shan-hai-ching, Chinese record (4th cent. A.D.)

Shantung peninsula, fighting on, (1894); part of, seized by Germany

Shao-kang, mythical Chinese ancestor of Japanese kings


Shiba, district of Tokyo, Castle of, built (803); temple with tomb of

--family, in office of Muromachi kwanryo; one of Five Regent Houses;
make trouble in Kyushu; in Onin war; in Omi

--Mochitane, estates of

--Tachito, first Buddhist missionary

--Takatsune, revolts against Ashikaga

--Yoshihige, minister of Ashikaga Yoshimochi

--Yoshikada, rival of Masanaga

--Yoshimasa (d. 1410), shitsuji, first to be called kwanryo

--Yoshitoshi (1430-90), estates; Onin war

Shibata Gonroku

--Katsuiye (1530-83), general under Nobunaga; councillor; death

Shibukawa Noriyasu, government astronomer

--Shunkai, revises calendar (1683)

Shi-do, "Way of the Warrior" by Yamaga Soko

Shido Shogun, Campaign of

Shiga, in Omi

Shigehide see Hagiwara Shigehide

Shigehito, Prince

Shigeko, mother of Ashikaga Yoshimasa

Shigeyoshi see Tokugawa Shigeyoshi

Shihotari, Prince, commands government station in Anra

Shijo, 87th Emperor (1233-42)

Shijo-nawate, in Kawachi, battle (1348)

Shikken, military regent, in Yoritomo's system, head of the
man-dokoro, great power of office held by Hojo family; Ashikaga
substitute second shitsuji for; kwanryo later equivalent to; of
Inchu, office held by Hino family

Shikoku, early history; pirates in, (931-7); in 16th century wars

Shikotan, inhabitants of, not pre-Ainu

Shimabara, battle of, defeat of Ryozoki Takanobu (1585); Jesuits and
trade at; the S. revolt (1637-8), puts end to Portuguese trade

Shimada Yuya, judge

Shimazu in Kyushu; defeated by Hideyoshi


-Hisamitsu or Saburo (1820-87), feudatory of Satsuma, in Namamugi
incident; in making of New Japan; with Saigo in Satsuma

--Iehisa (d. 1587), defeated by Hideyoshi

--Tadahisa (12th century) founder of family

--Tadakuni, in Ryuku

--Yoshihiro (1535-1619), successor of Yoshihisa

--Yoshihisa (1536-1611), defeats Ryuzoki Takanobu, and is ousted by
Hideyoshi; against Ieyasu; escapes after Sekigahara

Shimbetsu, families of pre-conquest chieftains or Kami class; three
sub-classes; early administration; help put down revolt of Heguri;
and rank of Empress; classification of Seishi-roku

Shimizu, branch of Tokugawa

--Muneharu, suicide

Shimoda, residence given to Americans

Shimonosekij French, Dutch and Americans fired upon, attack; peace
with China concluded at, (1895)

Shimosa, Taira Masakado's revolt in; Taira Tadatsune's

Shimpo-to, Progressist party, organized (1881)

Shin, Buddhist sect (1224); Hongwan-ji feud with Enryaku-ji; internal
quarrels; revolt of 1488, Ikko-ikki; oppose Nobunaga; interdicted in

Shinano, Yemishi in; revolt of Minamoto (Kiso) no Yoshinaka in;
Takeda and Uesugi in; silk growing

Genji, branch of Minamoto family

Shingen see Takeda Shingen

Shingon, "True Word," Buddhist sect founded by Kukai; Heijo and
Shinnyo devoted to; esoteric character

Shingu, Kii province, tomb of Hsu Fuh; naval base of Southern army

Shinki, Chinese painter

Shinno, painter

Shinnyo, name in religion of Takaoka

Shin-o, bridge in Yedo

Shino Soshin and incense-comparing

Shinran Shonin (1184-1268), founder of Shin sect, (ill.)

Shinto, sun-myth; rules in Yengi-shiki; therianthropy; shrines; Board
of Religion; first use of name (c. 586); relation to Buddhism; mixed,
with Buddhism; overshadowed by Buddhism, and subservient;
insincerity; in Heian epoch; priests support Southern Court;
relations with Confucianism and Buddhism; Pure Shinto; combined with
Confucianism; revival of

Shinzei see Fujiwara Michinori

Ships, early; building, as tribute; bureau of shipping; China trade;
size limited; limitation removed; middle of 19th century; modern
mercantile marine; illustrations; see Navy

Shiragi, Korea, myth; annals; war with Kara; king settles in Japan;
submits to Jingo; Japanese attacks on; Chinese immigration; revolt
against Yuryaku; weakened; dispute over Imun; ship-builders; Buddhist
image; defeats Kudara and Mimana; Japanese intervention; invasion;
families in Japanese nobility; travel to Japan forbidden

Shirahata, in Harima, fortress held by the Ashikaga; by the Akamatsu

Shirakabe, Prince; see Konin

Shirakawa, 72nd Emperor (1073-86)

Shiren, priest

Shiro-uji, branch of Taira family

Shishi-ga-tani plot (1177) against Taira

Shitenno-ji, temple to Four Guardian Kings of Heaven

Shitsuji, manager, of mandokoro, office hereditary in Nikaido family;
of monju-dokoro; second s. created in Takauji's system; and kwanryo

Shizuka, mistress of Yoshitsune

Shizugatake, battle of, (1583)

Shoan, Student of Chow and Confucius, teacher of Naka and Kamatari

Shocho koban, gold coins of 1428

Shodai-ji, temple

Shodan-chiyo, work of Ichijo Kaneyoshi

Shoen, great estates, manors; temple domains; attempts to check;
effect on agriculture

Shogun, "general"; head of Yoritomo's bakufu system; attempt to have
Imperial prince appointed; unimportant under Hojo; Fujiwara, then
Imperial princes, appointed; Ashikaga in Northern Court; powers
transferred to kwanryo; under Tokugawa; minister gets power;
separated from ministerial council; Chinese classics lessen power;
court of last appeal; Imperial rescript to; power resigned to Crown

Shohei, Japanese pronunciation of Changping, Confucius's birthplace;
Shohei-bashi, bridge, Shohei-ko, college, near temple to Confucius;
lectures there

Shohei, period, (1346-69)

Shohyo era

Shokagu-in, academy of Minamoto (881)

Shoko, 101st Emperor (1412-28), son of Go-Komatsu

Shokoku-ji, Zen temple in Kyoto, art school of Josetsu; one of the

Shokyu, year period 1219-22, and the struggle between the Court and
the military

Shomu, 45th Emperor (724-48)

Shoni, independent family of Kyushu

--Tokihisa (d. 1559), last of family

Shonzui (16th century), manufacture of porcelain

Shoren-in, temple in Kyoto

Shoso-in, Nara (ill.)

Shotoku, Empress (765-70), Koken returns to throne; orders amulets

--Prince, or Taishi (572-621); history; on religions; defeats Mononebe
Moriya; builds Buddhist temple; relations with Sushun; opposes uji
system; his "Constitution"; death; China; official promotion system;
a painter

--period, 1711-15, trade rules of

Shrines, yashiro, early Shinto; simple architecture of; in reign of
Suinin; less important than temple after mixed Shinto; shrine and
temple, ji-sha; immune from shugo

Shubun, painter

Shui-shu, anthology

Shujaku, 61st Emperor (931-46)

Shuko or Juko (1422-1502), Zen priest, code and tea-ceremonial

Shunkai see Shibukawa Shunkai

Shunzei, nom de plume of Fujiwara Toshinari

Shuryo, Buddhist priest, envoy of Muromachi to China

Shu-shi see Chutsz

Shushin, Zen priest

Silk in early times; culture, curtains for partition; mulberry trees
on uplands; in Nara epoch advanced by need of rich robes for priests;
exported; growing in Kotsuke, Shinano, etc.; "silk clothiers"

Silkworm, worship of

Silver and other precious metals

Si Wang-mu, owner of miraculous peachtree

"Six National Histories"

Slave, value of

Slaves and slavery, prehistoric; aliens become nuhi at conquest;
prisoners of war and criminals; Daika; laws on slavery for debt;
Daiho laws; provinces; Christians and slave-trade

Sleeves, legal regulation of

Small-pox interpreted as divine punishment

Snow and snow festivals; image of Dharma, (ill.)

So family and Korean trade

So-ami, artist, patronized by Yoshimasa; envoy to Ming court

--Sadamori (1385-1452) and Korean trade

--Sukekuni (d. 1274), governor of Tsushima, killed in battle with

Soden, inscription on Hoko-ji bell

Soga, family, descendants of Takenouchi; power; favour Buddhism;
relation to Imperial family; crushed by Fujiwara; usurpation causes

--Akae, minister of the Left, in conspiracy against Oama

--Emishi, o-omi, successor of Umako; assumes Imperial titles; killed

--Iname, o-omi, 130; recommends adoption of Buddhism; and Buddhist
temple (552 A.D.)

--Iruka, powerful under Kogyoku; quarrels with Yamashiro

--Sukeyasu, death

--Umako (d. 626), historiography; o-omi, kills Mononobe Moriya; power
under Bidatsu; guardian of Buddhist images; relationship to Imperial
family; final success over Mononebe Moriya; builds temple of Hoko-ji
(587 A.D.); has Sushun assassinated; alliance with Shotoku against
military system; death

Sogen (Chu Yuan), Chinese priest; and Kamakura calligraphy

Soji-ji, temple

Soko see Yamaga Soko

Solfataras of Unzen volcano, torture of Christians in

Solitary Kami

Soma, branch of Taira

Somedono, Empress, wife of Montoku

Song Wang Myohg, King of Kudara, and Buddhism

Son-Kwang, Kudara prince, settles in Naniwa

Son-O Jo-I, "Revere the Sovereign, expel the barbarians" motto

Sorin see Otomo Yoshishige

Soseki see Muso Kokushi

Sosetsu, envoy to China of Ouchi family

Soshi-Mori, Korea, myth

Sotan, painter

Sotelo Luis (1574-1624), Spanish Franciscan, attempts to survey
Japanese coast

Soto, sect, modification of Zen

Soun see Hojo Soun (Nagauji)

Southern Court, Daikagur-ji; war of dynasties; adherents; rulers;
claims ignored in 1412 and 1428

Southwestern Japan, comparative accessibility of

Sow race, Borneo, probable source of Kumaso

Soya, strait of

Sozen see Yamana Mochitoyo

Spaniards, in Manila, jealous of Portuguese; in Tosa with "wrecked"
galleon; intrigue against Dutch; Dutch and English intrigue against;
Hidetada orders deported (1624); invasion by, feared, and conquest of
Philippines urged; Spanish authorities forbid priests going to Japan;
refuse grant in Yedo; trade unimportant; end of trade

Spear, jewelled, token of authority of Kami; sign of military
authority; heads of; export of; carrier (ill.)

Spinning in myth; in early times

Spirit, tama, survives body; belief in activity of

Spying in Bushi system; civil; in Tokugawa Laws of Military Houses

Stackelberg, Baron, Russian general defeated by Oku at Telissu

Stag's shoulder blade, use in divination

Stake, death at

Stars in cosmogony

State, Central Department of, Nakatsukasa-sho

Stature of Japanese

Steel for swords

Stirrups among sepulchral remains; bridle, harness and (ill.)

Store-house, imikura; kura, administrator of, kura-bugyo

Stossel, Anatol Mikhailovitch, Russian general, surrenders Port

Straw, famine food

Straw mat, tatsu-gomo, for carpet

Straw rope in sun-myth

Sugar culture

Sugawara family descended from Nomi no Sukune; scholars

--Fumitoki, litterateur

--Hidenaga, lecturer

--Michizane (845-903), called Kwanko, schoolman; plot to send him on
embassy to China; Fujiwara plot against, (ill.); one of authors of
the fifth of "National Histories"; Chinese prose; shrine, (ill.);

--Toyonaga, patronized by Ujimitsu

Suicide in early myth; some examples; at grave; in protest against
policy; as punishment

Suiko, 33d Empress (593-628), consort of Bidatsu; historiography;
Chinese learning

Suinin, 11th Emperor (29 B.C.--70 A.D.); attempts to abolish human

Suisei, 2nd Emperor (581-549 B.C.)

Sujin, 10th Emperor (97-30 B.C.); and ship building

Sukenari (or Juro)

Suken-mon-in, mother of Go-Enyu, relations with Yoshimitsu

Suko, Northern Emperor (1348-52)

Sukuna Hikona, mythical pygmy healer; inventor of sake

Sukune family, growth of its power; see also Takenouchi-no-Sukune

Sulphur trade

Sumida, river bridged

Sumidu-gawa, groves

Sumitada see Omura Sumitada

Sumiyoshi, Kyoto school of painting; decorations for Imperial palace

--battle, defeat of Ashikaga

--Gukei, or Hirozumi (1634-1705)

Summer Campaign

Sumptuary laws in Nara epoch; in Kamakura period; of Hideyoshi; in
military laws; of Sadanobu; in early 19th century

Sumpu, in Suruga, Ieyasu retires to; vendetta illegal in; jodai of

Sun, and titles of nobles

Sun-crow, in Yamato expedition; on banners

Sun goddess, withholds light, an incarnation of Buddha

Sung, writer on war

--philosophy, Gen-e introduces; painting, Josetsu introduces

Sungari, Russian transport at Chemulpo

Sunrise Island, Jih-pen, Chinese or Korean name for eastern islands

Superstition, in 4th-6th centuries; in Nara epoch; in Heian

Supply, Departments of, in capital, under Daiho

Suruga, brigands of, crushed by Yamato-dake; province given to Ieyasu

--Genji, branch of Minamoto family

Survey for map under Hideyoshi; coastal begun by Spanish

Susanoo, Kami of Force, contest with Amaterasu; expelled from heaven,
kills great serpent; as tree-planter; rationalization of myth; its
bearings on relations with China and Korea; purification of; as
guardian of forests; ruler in Shiragi

Sushen, Tungusic settlers on Sado Island (549 A.D.); expeditions of
Hirafu against, (658 & 660); captives of Yemishi; later called Toi

Sushun, 32nd Emperor (588-92)

Su Ting-fang attacks Kudara (660 A.D.)

Sutoku, 75th Emperor (1124-41); Hogen tumult

Sutras, Buddhist; copying as atonement

Suwo, brigands; woman ruler in; Ouchi family of

Suye Harukata, called Zenkyo (d. 1555), crushed by Mori Motonari

Suzuka-yama, apparent Tatar remains in shrine at

Swan, Yamato-dake in form of; in cure of dumbness

Sword, myth, Imperial insignia; sepulchral remains; single-and
double-edged; offered at shrines; large and small; Minamoto
heirlooms; swordsmiths; exported; hilts (ill.); samurai and
sword-wearing; illustrations

Syllabary, phonetic, development in Japanese away from Chinese
ideograph; in Heian epoch, kata-kana and hiragana; used in Joei code

Ta-be, rice-cultivators or rustic corporation

Table and cookery in ancient Japan; in Kamakura period

Tachibana family

--Hayanari (d. 843), exiled with Tsunesada; calligrapher

--Hiromi, scholar

--Moroe (684-757), minister of the Right, acquiesces in rule of
Koken-Shotoku; may have compiled anthology of "Myriad Leaves"

Tachiri Munetsugu, Court envoy to summon Nobunaga to Kyoto

Tactics, of Bushi; gradual change in

Tada Genji, branch of Minamoto

Tadahiro see Kato Tadahiro

Tadakiyo see Sakai Tadakiyo

Tadamori see Taira Tadamori

Tadateru see Matsudaira Tadateru

Tadayoshi see Ashikaga Tadayoshi and Tokugawa Tadayoshi

Tadong River, Korea; in campaign of 1592

Taema, Prince, and expedition against Shiragi (603 A.D.)

Taema-no-Kuehaya, wrestler

Ta-fu, Japanese envoy to China (A.D. 57)

Taga, Castle of; built in 724 to check Yemishi; head-quarters
transferred to Isawa

Taguchi Shigeyoshi, deserts with fleet to Minamoto in battle of

Tai-hei-ki, historical work of 14th century, quoted on causes of
Shokyu struggle; on Yoshinaga

Taiho see Daiho

Taiken-mon-in, consort of Toba; intimacy with Shirakawa

Taiko, "great merit"; ex-regent, title of Hideyoshi; Taiko-zan,
temple at his birthplace

Taikoki, "Annals of the Taiko" quoted on Hideyoshi's palace

Taikwa see Daika

Tai Peh, Chinese prince, exile to Japan (800 B.C.); Imperial descent

Taira, family, descended from Prince Katsurabara, generals of
Imperial guards; called Heike; manors and armed forces; lose estates;
quarrel with Minamoto; revolt against Fujiwara; provincial branches;
treatment of priests, the Gen-pei epoch, struggle with Minamoto;
genealology; in Heiji tumult crush Minamoto; hold most important
offices; Yorimasa conspiracy against; defeated by Minamoto

--Atsumori (1169-84), killed at Ichi-no-tani

--Chikafusa, provincial governor

--Hirotsune, favours Yoritomo

--Kanetaka, lieutenant governor of Izu; is killed by Tokimasa

--Kiyomori (1118-81), wins manors; treatment of priests; crushes
Minamoto; supports Go-Shirakawa; alliance with Shinzei; lessens power
of Fujiwara; supreme; arbitrary rule; crushes Yorimasa conspiracy;

--Korehira, founder of Ise-Heishi

--Koremochi, founder of branches of Taira

--Koremori, commands army sent against Yorimoto

Taira Masakado (d. 940), his revolt

--Masamori, crushes rebellion of Minamoto Yoshichika

--Michimori, killed in battle of Ichi-no-tani

--Munekiyo helps save life of Yoritomo; relations with Minamoto

--Munemori (1147-85), Shishi-ga-tani plot; abandons Kyoto; refuses
Yoshinaka's request for an alliance; escapes after Ichi-no-tani;
defeated at Yashima; executed; possibly a changeling

--Noritsune (1160-85), defeats Ashikaga Yoshikiyo in Bitchu; at
Yashima; drowned at Dan-no-ura-Sadamori defeats Taira Masakado

--Shigehira (1158-85), sacks and burns three monasteries; in 1181
attacks Minamoto Yukiiye; taken prisoner at Ichi-no-tani; death

--Shigemori (1138-79); Fujiwara Narichika's jealousy of; restrains
Kiyomori; death

--Shigenobu, in revolt against Fujiwara (967)

--Tadamasa, favours Sutoku in Hogen tumult, executed by Kiyomori

--Tadamori (1096-1153), body guard of Shirakawa; against Yoritomo;
descent; treatment of priests

--Tadanori (1144-84), killed at Ichi-no-tani

--Tadatsune, defeated by Minamoto Yorinobu (1031)

--Takamochi, first marquis (889) of Taira

--Tomoakira, saves his father

--Tomomori (1152-85) burns and sacks monasteries; saved by his son at
Ichi-no-tani; drowned at Dan-no-ura

--Tomoyasu, enemy of Yoshinaka, commands palace-guards


--Yoritsuna, guardian of Sadatoki, crushes Adachi (1286), killed


Taishiden Hochu, Shotoku in, on Buddhism; on property of Mononobe

Taitsang, taken by pirates, 1560

Taitsu, Chinese Emperor, protests against piracy

Tajima, king of Shiragi, settles in

--Mori, sent for orange seeds

Taka becomes empress

Takaaki, younger brother of Murakami, banished

Takachiho, Mt. in Hyuga (Saikaido)

Takahashi, Mr., on "Mallet-headed" swords

Takahira, Kogoro, Baron (b. 1864), peace commissioner at Portsmouth

Takahito, Prince, son of Go-Shu jaku, attempt to have him passed
over; see Go-Sanjo

Takaichi, Prince; dies (696)

Taka-ichi, Yamato province, possibly the "Plain of High Heaven" of

Takakage see Kohayakawa Takakage

Takakuni see Hosokawa Takakuni

Takakura, 80th Emperor (1169-80)

Takamatsu, castle in Bitchu besieged by Hideyoshi

Takama-yama and Takama-no, Yamato

Takamochi, first of the Taira family

Takamuku Kuromaro, literatus, national doctor; leader of embassy to
China (654, A.D.); dies there

Takanaga, Prince (1311-38), commander against Ashikaga

Takauji; in war of dynasties; suicide

Takano, consort of Konin, mother of Kwammu

Takanori see Kojima Takanori

Takao, temple at

Takaoka, monk, travels in India

Takashima Kihei, called Shirodayu, or Shuhan, advocates foreign
intercourse (1853)

Takata, sect of Shin

Takatomo, Pruice, adopted son of Okimachi

Takatsukasa family founded by Fujiwara Kanehira, one of "Five Regent

Takatsuki, fief of Takayama

Takatsune see Shiba Takatsune

Takauji see Ashikaga Takauji

Takayama (d, 1596) feudatory of Takatsuki, converted by Vilela; his
son Yusho, "Don Justo Ukondono"

Takeda family of Kai favour Yoritomo; help in overthrow of Yoshinori;
alliance with Hojo and war with Uesugi; his allies against Nobunaga

--Katsuyori (1546-82), marries Nobunaga's daughter, but makes war on
him; defeated

--Nobumitsu stirs up Yoritomo against Yoshinaka

--Shingen, or Haranobu (1521-73), war with Uesugi (ill.); alliance
with Nobunaga, and with Ieyasu; death; military art; signature (ill.)

Takenaka, of Nagasaki, persecutes Christians

--Shigeharu, soldier of Hideyoshi

Takenouchi-no-Sukune, several prominent officials 1st to 4th century;
against Yemishi; prime minister; great duke of the Presence; in
conquest of Korea; succession to Jingo; ordeal for treason;
grand-daughter, marries Nintoku; descendants; the Heguri

Takenouchi Shikibu(1716-71), teacher of Chinese classics; forerunner
of Restoration

Taketori Monogatari, "Bamboo gatherer's narrative" classic

Takigawa Kazumasu, soldier of Nobunaga, kwanryo of Kwanto; favours
Nobutaka; defeated by Hideyoshi

Takinosawa, battle of, victory over Takeda

Takuan (1573-1645), Emperor gives purple robe to

Takuma artists

Takuahan, Manchuria, 4th Army lands at

Takutsakasa Sukehira, prime minister in Kyoto, opposes Kokaku

Talien, taken from Chinese (1894); Russian railway

Tallies used in trade with China

Tamba, urchins of, the princes Oke and Woke; rice grants charged to

Tamehira, younger brother of Murakami

Tamibe, naturalized aliens in pro-historic time

Tamichi, general, killed by Yemishi, 367 A.D.

Tamon, i.e. Ananda, statue in castle of Azuchi

Tamu no Mine, valley, site of shrine to Kamatari

Tamura, Prince, Emperor Jomei (629)

Tamura family defeated by Date

Tamuramaro see Saka-no-ye Tamuramaro

Tan, land unit; tansen, area tax

Tanaka Harukiyo, rebuilds shrine of Hachiman

Tandai, inquisitors, two representing Bakufu at Court; the
Ryo-Rokuhara; similar offices at Hakozaki and Nagato; in Muromachi

Tanegashima island where Portugese first landed; name used for
muskets they introduced

Tanetsugu see Fujiwara Tanetsugu

Tang, Chinese systems, and power of Throne (645-70); most of features
of Daika taken from; respects in which not adaptable to Japan; Kyoto
modelled on Tang metropolis, Changan

Tanners from Korea

Tanuma Okitomo (Mototomo) (d. 1784), son of Okitsugu

--Okitsugu (Mototsugu) (1719-88), favourite of Ieshige, prime minister
of Ieharu

Tan Yang-i, Chinese scholar

Taoism and Shinto

Tao Lung see Doryu

Tasa, omi of Kibi, removed by Yuryaku; leads revolt in Mimana

Tatars, possibly prominent in Yemishi revolts of 8th century; Golden
and Khitan in China

Tate, fortress or warp

Tate Chikatada, one of Yoshinaka's four body guards

Tatebito, famous archer

Tatsunokuchi, in Yedo, site of court of justice

Tattooing as penalty; as decoration first in proto-historic period,
when penalty abandoned

Tawara Toda see Fujiwara Hidesato

Taxation, early; and land-holding; war tax; land not taxed;
requisitions; in Shotoku's constitution; Daika; Daiho; Ashikaga
period; toll-gates; tokusei riots; under Tokugawa

Tayasu branch of Tokugawa, eligible to Shogunate; named from gate of
Yedo Castle

Munetake, or Tokugawa Munetake

Tea, plants introduced (814); more generally (1191); picking, in Uji,
(ill.); festivals; ceremonial (ill.), influence on ceramics, and
architecture, tea-parlours (ill.); Hideyoshi's interest in

Technical vocabulary, Japanese


Teika see Fujiwara Sadaiye

Teikin-orai, text book of letter-writing

Teio-keizu, Imperial genealogy

Telissu, battle of, Russians defeated by Oku

Tembun koban, gold coins minted in 1532-55

Tembyo, period (729-48)

Temman, Tenjin, shrine of Michizane

Temmangu see Michizane

Temmoku-zan, in Kai province, defeat of Takeda at

Temmu, 40th Emperor (673-86), Prince Oama; historiography; sumptuary

Temples, early Buddhist; mixed Shinto; provincial; estates; the
"Six"; Nara epoch; at Kamakura; the "Five," schools and scholarship;
revenue; commissioners; Ieyasu's legislation; under Imperial princes

Tempo, period, 1830-44, famines; reformation of

Tenchi, 38th Emperor (668-71); burial mound; painters; Daika; see

Tendai, monastery and doctrine of Saicho; temple

Tengai, abbot of Enryaku-ji, in bell-inscription affair; temple at
Nikko; Kwanei-ji

Tenjin, descendants of primeval trinity, sub-class of Shimbetsu; name
under which Michizane was apotheosized

Tennoki, Record of the Emperors

Tenno-zan, position in battle of Yamazaki

Tenryaku, year-period (947-57)

Tenryu-ji, temple at Saga, built by Takauji; T.-bune, merchantmen,
sent to China for art objects; T.-seiji, celadon vases from China

Tenshin, "kami of the descent," chieftains of expedition from Kyushu

Tensho, year period, 1573-91, coins

Tenson, "Heavenly grand-child" epithet of Hikoho Ninigi; sub-class of
Shimbetsu, descendants of Sun goddess; superior position of

Teraishi, Dr., on decoration of bronze bells

Terasaka Kichiemon, one of "47 Ronin"

Terumoto see Mori Terumoto

Terutora see Uesugi Kenshin

Tetsuo, priest of Daitoku-ji

Text books

Thatch on houses

Thermal springs

Thirty-year census

Three Years' War, Go-Sannen (1089-91)

Thunder, Kami of, in tree; axes

Tientai, Japanese Tendai, Chinese monastery

Tientsin relieved by Japanese troops in Boxer Rebellion

Tiger, magic taught by

Tiles, peculiar to temples; roofs of official buildings tiled in Nara
epoch; slate-coloured and green in city of Kyoto; in Kamakura period;

Timur gives up attack on Japan

Ting, Chinese admiral, defeated at Weihaiwei

Titles, or gentile names; new under Temmu

Toba, 74th Emperor (1108-23); state domains; palace

Tobacco growing; pipe and pouch, (ill.)

Toda Izu no Kami, advocates foreign intercourse (1853)

Tadanori, adviser of Nariaki

Todai-ji, Kegon temple at Nara, bronze Buddha; procession in Koken's
reign; great bell; bell-tower (ill.); statue (ill.); gate-guards;
burnt by Taira

Todo Takatora (1556-1630) helps Tokugawa

Toei-zan, Ueno hill, temple of Kwanei-ji

Tofuku-ji, Buddhist temple, S.E. of Kyoto

Tofuku-mon-in, Kazuko, first Tokugawa consort; wife of Go-Mizu-no-o

Togashi family splits in Onin war

Togo Heihachiro, Count (b. 1857), Japanese admiral, attacks Russian
fleet at Port Arthur; blocks entrance to harbour; defeats Russians at

Toi invade Japan (1019)

Toichi, wife of Kobun

Toin see Doin

To-ji, Shingon temple (Goku-ku-ji) in Kyoto

Tokaido, road from Kyoto to Tokyo

Toki see Doki

Tokichi see Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Tokimasa see Hojo Tokimasa

Tokimune (or Goro) avenges father's murder

Tokiuji see Yamano Tokiuji

Tokiwa, mistress of Yoshitomo

Tokiyasu, Prince, see Koko

Tokiyo, Prince, marries daughter of Sugawara Michizane

Toku, empress Kenrei-mon-in; mother of Emperor Antoku

Tokugawa, descent of family; hereditary system founded by Ieyasu;
shogunate of family; oath of loyalty to; the T. Bakufu;
"Constitution"; school, Shohei-ko; Imperial family, marries into;
strengthened; attitude to feudatories; Hidetada line succeeded by Kii
branch; families in ministry; decline of power; end of shogunate

Chikauji (d. 1407?), ancestor of Matsudaira

Hidetada (1579-1632), shogun (1605-22); anti-Christian edict (1616);
orders Spaniards deported; in war with Uesugi; daughter weds
Hideyori; attacks Osaka; Ieyasu's instructions to; rule, death,
character; and Crown

Tokugawa Hirotada (1526-49)

--Hyakkajo, One Hundred Rules of Tokugawa

--Ieharu (1737-86), shogun (1760-86)

--Iemitsu (1603-51), shogun (1622-51); treatment of Christians;
Ieyasu's instructions to; requires nobles to reside at Yedo; and
feudal lords

--Iemochi (1846-66), shogun (1858-66); marries Emperor's sister;

--Ienari (1773-1841), shogun (1786-1837); his father's rank;

--Ienobu (1662-1712), shogun (1709-12)

--Iesada (1824-58), shogun (1853-8)

--Ieshige (1702-61), shogun (1745-60); his son, Shigeyoshi, ancestor
of Shimizu branch

--Ietsugu (1709-16), shogun (1712-16)

--Ietsuna (1642-80), 4th shogun (1651-80); power passes to minister;
abdication of Go-Saien; death

--Ieyasu (1542-1616) (ill.); in war on Asakura and Asai; alliance with
Shingen; defeats Takeda; threatened; in Komaki war; peace with
Hideyoshi; against Hojo; receives Kwanto; takes oath; in Hideyoshi's
scheme; Christianity; Will Adams; death; family; succession to
Hideyoshi; wealth; Sekigahara; distribution of fiefs; shogun;
Hideyori; defied at Osaka; Hoko-ji bell; attacks Osaka castle;
character; legislation; literature; Hidetada; shrine; patterned upon
by Yoshimune; Shinto revival; foreign intercourse; signature (ill.)

--Ieyoshi (1792-1853), shogun (1838-53)

--Jidaishi, on Ieyasu's laws

--Mitsukuni (1628-1700), sympathizes with Masayasu; interest in

--Munetada (1721-64), founder of Hitotsubashi branch

--Munetake (d. 1769) founder of Tayasii branch

--Nariaki (1800-60), daimyo of Mito, anti-foreign policy of; attempts
to make his son shogun; surrenders edict against shogun

--(or Matsudaira) Nariyuki, feudatory of Kir

--Nobuyasu (1559-79); marriage

--Nobuyoshi (1583-1603), daimyo of Mito

--Shigeyoshi (1745-95), founds Shimizu branch

--Tadanaga (1605-33), brother of Iemitsu

--Tadayoshi (1580-1607), daimyo of Kiyosu

--Tsunayoshi (1646-1709), shogun (1686-1709); considerate for Crown

--Yorifusa (1603-61), daimyo of Mito; one of Sanke

--Yorinobu (1602-71), daimyo of Kii

--Yoshimune (1677-1751), shogun (1716-45); camera rule; Tayasu and
Hitotsubashi branches

--Yoshinao (1600-50), daimyo of Owari; founds Shohei-ko school

--Yoshinobu or Keiki (1837-97), son of Nariaki and his candidate for
shogun; Crown urges his promotion; guardian of shogun; shogun
(1866-8); resigns; surrenders Yedo

Tokuhon see Hatakeyama Mochikuni

Tokuno support Southern Court

Tokuno Michlkoto, defender of Go-Daigo

Tokusei, "benevolent policy", laws of 1297; extension of policy under
Ashikaga; riots; for debtors

Tokuso, priest

Tokyo, formerly Yedo, eastern capital

Tomi see Fujiwara Tomiko

Tomoe, Yoshinaka's mistress

Tomohira, Prince (963-1009), poet

Tomohito, Prince, see Kokaku

Tomo, Princess, see Go-Sakuramichi

Tomo Kowamine, exiled (843) with Prince Tsunesada

Ton-a (1301-84), poet

Tonami-yami, Echizen, defeat of Taira at

Tonegawa, flood in

Tone-yama, battle (1573)

Tonghak rebellion in Korea (1894), Chinese troops sent to quell

Tongkan, Korean history, its chronology

Tori Shichi (Korean Nori Sachhi), Buddhist

Torii Mototada (1539-1600), dies in defense of Ieyasu's castle


Tornado of 1718

Torres, Baltasar de (1563-1626), Jesuit, companion of Xavier

Tortoise shell, divination

Torture in ancient Japan

Tosa, province; Ichijo family move to; seized by Chosokabe; bonita
curing in; T memorial against Bakufu; surrender of fiefs; clan

Tosa, Kyoto school of painting; patronized by Tsunayoshi; decorations
of palace

Mitsunobu see Mitsunobu

Mitsuoki, teacher of Hirozumi

Tosa Nikki, Tosa Diary

Tosabo Shoshun, bonze

Tosando, mountain road

Toshiiye see Maeda Toshiiye


Tosho-ji, temple, suicides in its cemetery after defeat of Hojo

Towers, royal; fire watch tower

Toyohara Tokimoto, musician

Toyohito see Kogon

Toyokuni Daimyo-jin, temple of, sacred to Hideyoshi, destroyed by

Toyonari see Fujiwara no Toyonari

Toyotomi, family, revolt of ronin (1651); decline of influence

Hidetsugu (1568-95), adopted successor of Hideyoshi; Hideyoshi's
letter to; death

Hideyori (1593-1615), son of Hideyoshi; regent; Christians join him
against Ieyasu; Ishida favours; nai-daijin, marries Ieyasu's
granddaughter; Ieyasu's estimate; opposes Ieyasu; refuses to
surrender; suicide

Toyotomi Hideyoshi( 1536-98); battle of Okehazama; in Ise and Kyoto;
Sakai; war with Asakura and Asai; against Takeda Katsuyori; invades
Chugoku; plans war on China; peace with Mori; Nobunaga; defeats
Mitsuhide; councillor; crushes Takigawa Kazumasa and Shibuta
Katsuiye; Yodogimi; Osaka castle; in Komaki war; peace with Ieyasu;
regent; crushes remaining enemies; treatment of Ieyasu; Buddhism;
palace; tea-festivals, wealth; invasion of Korea; death; family;
kills Hidetsugu; character; legislation; Christianity; tomb

--Kunimatsu, son of Hideyori, killed by Ieyasu

"Trade, Chief of"

Transportation, early; roads in Nara epoch; in Heian; in Muromachi;
improved by Nobunaga; laws; Tokugawa improvements;
road-commissioners; railway building

Treason under Daiho code

Treasury established 405 A.D.; three in Yuryaku's reign; burnt in
1659; see Finance Department

Treaties with United States, Russia, Holland, England; commercial
treaty with United States; with Korea; with China; with Russia
(Portsmouth); with China (Peking)

Tree, sacred, of Buddhist temples; tree worship; myths of tree
planting; stories of huge trees

Trigrams, in divination

"True Word," Shingon

Tsarevitch, Russian battleship at Port Arthur

Tsin dynasty (265-317) and Chinese migration

Tsuchi-gumo, "Earth-spiders" or "Pit dwellers"; called Wado by

Tsuchi Mikado, 83d Emperor (1199-1210); abdicates; exile

Tsugaru in 16th century wars; remains of Tatar fortress

--strait, controlled by Japan

Tsugunawa see Fujiwara Tsugunawa

Tsuguno, architect

Tsuka, Korean prince, migrates to Japan; carpenters

Tsukiji, in Yedo, naval college at

Tsukuda, island

Tsukushi see Kyushu

Tsunayoshi see Tokugawa Tsunayoshi

Tsunehito, Prince, father of Kokaku, rank

Tsuneko, consort of Kwazan

Tsunenaga, Prince (1324-38), conspiracy to make him heir; poisoned by

Tsunesada, Prince (823-84), exiled (843)

Tsure-zure-gusa, "Weeds of Tedium"

Tsuruga, ancient Kehi-no-ura; fortifications (1280)

Tsurugaoka hill in Kamakura, shrine of Hachiman

Tsushima, islands, in early myth; silver discovered (674) and gold
(701); attacked by Toi (1019), by Mongols (1274), and (1281);
attacked by Koreans in 1419; Korean trade; Chinese squadron attacks;
outpost of Japan; Hakuseki wishes to limit Korean envoys to;
commerce; commanding strait; Russian attempts upon; battle of,
Russian fleet defeated by Togo

Tsutsui Junkei (1549-84), deserts Akechi Mitsuhide in battle of
Yamazaki; succession to Nobunaga

Tsuwata Saburo, suicide

Tsuying, king of Pohai, Korea

203-Metre Hill, Port Arthur, fighting at

Uchida Ieyoshi, warrior

Masanobu (1619-51), suicide

Uda, 59th Emperor (888-97), Prince Sadami

Uda Genji of Omi, branch of Minamoto

Ueda castle

Ueno park, Kiyomizu temple; hill called Toeizan; abbot of, candidate
for throne in 1867

Uesugi, family, favours Tadayoshi; overthrows Ashikaga; kwanryo; two
branches; quarrels; join against Hojo; shitsuji; governor-general of
Kwanto; patronize schools; against Mogami; Hideyoshi makes peace with

--Akifusa, shitsuji to Shigeuji

--Akisada, estates

--Akiyoshi, avenges his father

--Fusaaki (1432-66)

--Kagekatsu (1555-1623), lieutenant of Hideyoshi in Komaki war;
against Hojo; senior minister; with Ishida Katsushiga plots against
Ieyasu; open break with Ieyasu; fiefs reduced after Sekigahara

--Kenshin, originally Nagao Kagetora. (1530-78), kwanryo, war with
Hojo and Takeda, checked between Nobunaga and Shingen; military art

--Mochifusa, sent against Kamakura by Ashikaga Yoshinori (1439)

--Mochitomo (1416-67) fortifies Kawagoe

--Noriaki (1306-68), shitsuji; exile

--Noriharu (d. 1379), suicide

--Norimasa (1522-79), driven from Hirai by Ujiyasu

--Norimoto (1383-1418)

--Noritada (1433-54), shitsuji to Shigeuji, death

--Norizane (d. 1455), plot to kill; helps defeat Kamakura forces

--Shigeyoshi (d. 1349), shitsuji, exiled

--Tomomune, shitsuji

--Tomosada, shitsuji


--Yoshinori (d. 1378), shitsuji

Uji, families, rank; government, established and abolished by
Emperor; taxation; feudal chiefs; the Eight Great Uji; opposed by
Shotoku; rank; government; Jinshin; Kami elective; princely families;
academies; record; territorial names

Uji river, Yamashiro province, battle at

Uiyasu see Hojo Ujiyasu

Ukhtonsky, Rear-Admiral Prince, commanding Russian squadron at Port

Ukita Hideiye (d. 1662), soldier of Hideyoshi, against Chosokabe;
commander-in-chief in Korea; one of 5 senior ministers; and
Hideyoshi's laws; against Ieyasu; estates forfeited

Naoiye (1530-82), turns from Mori to Nobunaga

Umako see Soga Umako

Umashimade, ancestor of Mononobe

Umeda Genjiro, pen-name "Umpin" (1816-59), promotes Imperial

Umetada Akihisa, metal-worker

Unclean, eta and hinin, in Kamakura classification

Unebi, Mt., tomb of Jimmu; Soga mansion

Ung-jin (Paik-chhon-ku), Japanese defeat at, (662)

United States, Japanese relations with, 1837 '46, and '48; Perry;
Townsend Harris; Shimonoseki affair; Americans in education,
post-office, agriculture, etc.; intervention in Russo-Japanese war;
threats of war

Unkei, sculptor

Unzen, volcano, Christians tortured in solfataras

Upland, onchi

Urabe Kanetomo (15th century), Shinto

Yoshida, Shinto doctrine of

Uraga, English refuse for headquarters; Manhattan enters; Perry in

Urup, island, Russians in, (1792)

Uryu Sotokichi (b. 1857), rear-admiral, destroys Russian cruisers at

Usui Pass in Yamato-dake's march, identification of

Usume, female Kami

Usuri, won by Russia (1860)

Utsonomiya family, one of "8 Generals of Kwanto"

Valegnani, Alexander (1537-1606), Jesuit vice-general, visits
Kuchinotsu in 1578; embassy

Variag, Russian cruiser at Chemulpo

Vehicles, proto-historic; in Nara epoch

"Vehicles" of Buddhism

Veil in ancient costume

Vendetta, beginning of in Japan (486 A.D.); (1193); of Ako; illegal
in Kyoto, Yedo, Osaka and Sumpu

Vermilion pillars; stamp of Taiko

Vilela, Gaspard (d. 1570), Portuguese Jesuit, in Kyoto

Village, part of agata; assemblies; chief

Vivero y Velasco, Rodrigo, governor of Philippines, agreement with
Ieyasu (1609)

Vladivostok, strategic situation; Russian squadron at, crushed by
Kamimura; objective of Rozhdestvensky

Volcanic eruptions

Wa, "dwarf" or "subservient," early Chinese name for Japanese

Wada Yoshimori (1147-1213) son of Yoritomo's benefactor in Bakufu
council; betto defeated and killed by Hojo Yoshitoki

Wadded garments, first mentioned, in 643 A.D.; use prescribed

Wado, Chinese name of western tribe of Japan

Wado, copper era (708-15)

Wage, in 1498

Waka, wife of Tasa, taken from him by Yuryaku

Waka-irutsako, younger son of Ojin

Wake, funeral ceremony

Wake, Prince, burial of

Kiyomaro (733-99), banished; chooses site for new capital for Kwammu

Wakiya Yoshiharu, son of Yoshisuke, in defeat of Takauji

Yoshisuke (d. 1340), brother of Nitta Yoshisada and provincial
governor; in command of Imperial army against the Ashikaga

Wakizaka Yasuharu (1554-1626) at battle of Sekigahara

Wang Yang-ming (1472-1529) philosophy of, officially displaced by
Chutsz's; Nakaye Toju follows; summary of system

Wani, Korean scribe in Japan; his descendant, Wang-sin-i

War, Department of, Hyobusho

War God, Hachiman, Oracle of

War Office, Heisei-kan

Waseda University, Tokyo, founded by Okuma

Watanabe, fleet at, before battle of Yashima

Watanabe family, branch of Minamoto

Watarai, temple of, in Ise, princess priest of

Watazumi-no-Kuni, Japanese intercourse with

Watch, in capital

Water-supply of Yedo

Wave-men, ronin

Wax, vegetable, industry

Weaving in early times; early taxes paid by; development

Weights and measures

Weihaiwei, taken from Chinese (1894)

Wei Records, A.D. 211-265, on Japanese markets

Western Army, Yamana forces in Onin war

Whale, fossil remains

White, mourning colour; colour of Minamoto

Wi-ju, Korea; Russians at, (1904)

Winter Campaign

Wistaria, fujiwara; bark used for mourning garments

Witchcraft, in Nara epoch

Wo (Japan), tributary to Chinese Kingdom of Yen

Woke, see Ninken

Women, use phonetic language; warriors; tribute to serpents and
marauders; prehistoric status; rulers; hostages; morality;
literature; property rights; in Tokugawa period; punishment of;
shogun's harem; illustrations

Wrestling in prehistoric times; first recorded match (23 B.C.);
professional sport; (ill.)

Wu, Chinese Emperor, and Buddhist propaganda

Wu-Ti, Chinese emperor, conqueror of Korea

Xavier, St. Francis (1506-52), Jesuit missionary, lands in Kagoshima
(1549); in Hirado, Yamaguchi, Kyoto, and Bungo, death

Yada castle in Ise

Yae, wife of Hideyoshi, followed by military clique

Yaka, mistress of Tenchi

Yakami, Princess, of Inaba, marries Great-Name Possessor

Yakami, castle in Tamba

Yakushi, Buddhist god of wisdom, inscription on image of; y.-ji,
temple, (ill.)

Yalu River, Korea, in 1592 campaign; Chinese cross, (1894); Russians
and Japanese on, (1904); Russians defeated

Yama, Indian god

Yamabe, Prince; see Kwammu

-Akahito, poet

Yamabushi, priests

Yamada Tesshu, on Bushi

Yamaga Soko (1622-85), philosopher of bushido; Chinese teaching

Yamagata Daini (1725-67), executed; fore-runner of Restoration

Yamaguchi, Korean envoys come to; Xavier in; Jesuits leave;
Christians in

Yamamoto support Southern Court

Yamana, family, joins Southern party; controls ten provinces; turns
to Northern Court; crushed; rehabilitated; one of Five Regent Houses;
holdings; Hosokawa; forces in Onin war, Western Army; "province

--Mitsuyuki, in revolt against Northern Dynasty

--Mochitoyo, called Sozen, "Red Monk" (1404-73), gets Harima; great
estate; in war on Hatakeyama; forces choice of Shiba Yoshikado as
kwanryo; deserts Yoshimi; death

--Norikiyo receives province of Mimasaka

--Noriyuki, captures Shirahita

--Sozen see Yamana Mochitoyo

--Tokiuji (d. 1372), joins Ashikaga

--Ujikiyo rebels (1391) against the Ashikaga

Yamanobe, Princess

Yamanouchi, family name taken by Uesugi Yoshinori; feud with
Ogigayatsu; join them against Hojo

Yamashina, Kamatari's residence

Yamashiro, Prince, candidate for throne in 629 and 641; suicide

Yamashiro, early shrine; campaign from, against Sujin; canal; meaning
of name; school of painters (604 A.D.)

Yamato, expedition from Kyushu against; meaning of name, as used by
Chinese; kindred race at time of conquest; retirement to Tsukushi;
culture; physiognomy; relations with Caucasians; language; school of

Yamato, Prince, human sacrifices at burial of (2 A.D.)

Yamato-dake and Susanoo's sword; campaign against Yemishi; against
Kumaso; a swan

Yamato Genji, branch of Minamoto

Oguna, earlier name of Yamato-dake

Yamazaki, battle of, (1282)

Ansai, follower of Chutsz; forerunner of Restoration

Yanaida Takasuke, estates

Yanagawa Seigan, Imperial restoration movement

Yanagisawa Yasuaki, or Yoshiyasu, (1658-1714), favourite of
Tsunayoshi; dismissed by Ienobu

Yanamoto Kataharu in civil war of 1520

Yang-chou, taken by pirates (1556)

Yangtzuling, Russian defeat at

Yashima, battle, (1185)

Yashima, Japanese battleship lost off Port Arthur

Yaso, daughter of Emperor Reigen

Yasumaro see Ono Yasumaro

Year-period (Nengo), adoption of Chinese 645 A.D.; under two

Yedo, fort built (1456); capital of Kwanto; Franciscan mission;
Hidetada; Bakufu; castle; nobles must reside in; rebuilt after fire;
art centre; vendetta forbidden; tree planting in; Kwanno Chokuyo's
school; fires; degeneration, 18th century; vagabonds; prison; land
offered to foreign traders; called Tokyo

Yellow Sea, Japanese victory over Chinese (1894)

Yemishi, early name of Ainu; Hirafu's expedition; description;
Yamato-dake's expedition; captives called Saekibe; revolt in Kazusa;
language, Siberian origin; migration; revolts

Yen, Pechili

Yengi-shiki, book of ceremonial law (927 A.D.)

Yen Hui, Chinese painter

Yenisei, Russian mining-transport, sunk by mine at Port Arthur

Yenomoto Takeaki, Viscount (1839-1909), admiral to the shogun, tries
to set up republic in Yezo

Yezo, pit-dwellers' remains in; name related to Yoso; Yemishi in;
Russians and Japanese clash in; Yenomoto's republic in

Yi Sun-sin, Korean admiral, defeats Japanese fleet

Yo-chang, prince of Kudara, defeats Koma (553), beaten by Shiragi

Yodo (Yamanouchi Yodo) (1827-72), feudatory of Tosa, memorial to

Yodo, estate of

Yodo or Yodogimi, daughter of Asai Nagamasa and mother of Toyotomi
Hideyori; civil party sides with; against Ieyasu; Ieyasu promotes
quarrel between Katagiri Katsumoto and; intrigue through her sister;

Yokohama, opened to American trade (1858)

Yoko-yama, castle of Nagamasa

Yolang, or Pyong-yang, Korea

Yomei, 31st Emperor (586-7); Buddhism

Yomi, hades, compared to Indian Yama; identified with Yomi-shima,
between Hoki and Izumo

Yorifusa see Tokugawa Yorifusa

Yoriiye see Minamoto Yoriiye

Yorimasa conspiracy (1180)

Yorinobu see Tokugawa Yorinobu

Yoritomo see Minamoto Yoritomo

Yoritsune see Fujiwara Yoritsune

Yoro, year-period, and legislation of

Yorozu, story of

Yoshida Kenko (1283-1350), recluse and poet, one of "four kings"

Shoin (1831-60), leader of anti-foreign and Imperial movement

Yoshifusa see Fujiwara Yoshifusa

Yoshiiye see Minamoto Yoshiiye

Yoshikage see Asakura Yoshikage

Yoshikawa, adherents of Southern Court

Yoshimasa see Ashikaga Yoshimasa

Yoshimi see Ashikaga Yoshimi

--nephew of Yoritomo

Yoshimine, princely uji

Yoshimitsu see Ashikaga Yoshimitsu

Yoshimune see Tokugawa Yoshimune

Yoshinaga (Norinaga), Prince, governor-general of O-U; in the
Ashikaga revolt; see Go-Murakami

Yoshinaka see Minamoto Yoshinaka

Yoshinao see Tokugawa Yoshinao

Yoshino, in Yamato, Buddhist monastery at, rallying place for
Furubito's followers; Prince Oama takes refuge at; rendez-vous of
Go-Daigo's followers; in war of dynasties

Yoshino, cruiser lost off Port Arthur

Yoshinobu see Tokugawa Yoshinobu

Yoshisada see Nitta Yoshisada

Yoshisuke see Wakiya Yoshisuke

Yoshiteru see Murakami Yoshiteru

Yoshitsune see Miriamoto no Yoshitsune

Yoso, N. E. Korea, cradle of Yemishi

Yozei, 57th Emperor (877-84)

Yuasa support Southern Court

Yuge no Dokyo, priest, Koken's love for

Yui Shosetsu, leader in revolt of 1651

Yuki, branch of Fujiwara in Kwanto; persuade Shigenii to kill

--Munehiro, administrator in O-U

Yunglo, Chinese Emperor and year-period, 1403-22, called Eiraku in

Yura, Strait of

Yuryaku, Emperor (457-79), cruelty of his reign; and Korea; death of
Hayato at his tomb; serpent worship; 3 provinces added in his time;
punishes Sakitsuya for lese-majeste, succession

Yushima, Yedo, shrine

Yusho see Takayama

Yutahito see Kogon

Yuzu or Yutsuki, Chinese imperial prince, and Chinese migration to

Zejobo, mathematician and surveyor

Zekkai, scholar, adviser of Yoshimitsu

Zen (dhyand, meditation), Buddhist sect of contemplation; and Hojo
Tokimune; the soldier's creed; and intercourse with China; priests
and literature and art; tea ceremonial; favoured by the Ashikaga;
great priests; five temples in Kyoto

Zenko-ji, temple in Nagano with battle paintings

Zenkyo see Suye Harukata

Zenyu, priest, liaison with Empress Taka

Zojo-ji, temple of Shiba, Tokyo, tomb of Hidetada

Zoku Nihongi (or Nihonki) Supplementary Chronicles of Japan (798)

Nihon Koki, Supplementary Later Chronicles (869)

Zuisa, Buddhist priest, envoy of shogun to China

Zuniga, Pedro de (d. 1622), Spanish Dominican and martyr